United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), organization established to guide and coordinate environmental activities within the United Nations (UN) system.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 28 European countries and 2 North American countries.
Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)
The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is an intergovernmental organization founded in Shanghai on 15 June 2001.
Mekong–Ganga Cooperation (MGC)
The Mekong–Ganga Cooperation (MGC) was established on November 10, 2000, at Vientiane, Laos at the First MGC Ministerial Meeting.
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)
The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is an agreement between the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its free trade agreement (FTA) partners.
Strategic impact of ‘Hot Pursuit’ & ‘Surgical Strikes’
The terms ‘Hot Pursuit’ and ‘Surgical Strikes’ are often used in connection with armed action against terrorist attacks. These terms have become part of popular discourse in India since the time the Indian military carried out the counter-terror operation
Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)
Adjournment motion is aimed to draw the attention of the House to a recent matter of urgent public importance having serious consequences and with regard to which a motion or a resolution with proper notice will be too late.
India’s bid for permanent seat in the UNSC
India has been seeking a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council as a member of the G4, an organization composed of Brazil, Germany, Japan, and India, all who are currently seeking permanent representation.
Generally, the first hour of a sitting of National Assembly is devoted to Questions and that hour is called the Question Hour.
Article 75 of the Constitution says that the council of ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. It means that the ministry stays in office so long as it enjoys confidence of the majority of the members of the Lok Sabha.
Committee on Subordinate Legislation
Rajya Sabha Committee on Subordinate Legislation was first constituted in 1964.
Ninth Schedule of the Constitution
The Schedule became a part of the Constitution in 1951, when the document was amended for the first time.
Committee on government assurance
It was in 1953, the first Committee on Government Assurances was constituted by the Speaker in the Lok Sabha for systematic follow-up of Ministerial assurances.
Virtual private network (VPN)
A virtual private network (VPN) is an encrypted connection over the Internet from a device to a network.
Internet Protocol (IP)
The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol, or set of rules, for routing and addressing packets of data so that they can travel across networks and arrive at the correct destination. To achieve this, IP includes methods and structures for putting tags (addr
INS Astradharini is an indigenously designed and built torpedo launch and recovery vessel built by Shoft Shipyard for the Indian Navy.
Genetically modified crops (GM crops)
GM is a technology that involves inserting DNA into the genome of an organism. To produce a GM plant, new DNA is transferred into plant cells.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information between autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet.
Belle II experiment
The High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation (KEK) in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, completed the Belle-II experiment.
The Cauvery River (Kaveri)
The Cauvery River (Kaveri) is the 3rd largest river after Godavari and Krishna in South India after and the largest in the State of Tamil Nadu, which, on its course, bisects the state into North and South.
Milam Glacier is a major glacier of the Kumaon Himalaya. It is located in the tehsil of Munsiyari, part of the Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand, India, about 15 kms north-east of Nanda Devi.
Indian Forest Act, 1927
The Indian Forest Act, 1927- was enacted to ‘consolidate the law related to forest, the transit of forest produce, and the duty liable on timber and other forest produce’.
Extended producer responsibility (EPR)
Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is an environmental protection strategy aimed at decreasing total environmental impact from a product and its packaging, by ensuring that the producers of the product take responsibility for the entire lifecycle of t
Environment Protection Act, 1986
Environment Protection Act, 1986 Act of the Parliament of India. Act was enacted under Article 253 of the Constitution.
Bara Shigri Glacier
Bara Shigri (literally "Great Glacier") is a glacier located in Lahaul & Spiti, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Bandarpunch which literally means ‘monkey’s tail’, is a glacier which lies in the western Garhwal region of Uttarakhand.
John Rawls’ theory of justice
All cultures and traditions have interpreted the concept of justice in different ways. For instance, in ancient Indian society, justice was associated with dharma and maintaining dharma or a just social order, was considered to be a primary duty of kings.
The terms "Subsidiary Alliance" was 1st introduced by French Governor Dupleix.
Sthanakavasi is a sect of Svetambara Jainism founded by Lavaji in 1653 AD.
Lala Lajpat Rai
Lala Lajpat Rai born on 28 January 1865, in Punjab, was an Indian independence activist.
Aurobindo Ghose also known as Sri Aurobindo was an Indian philosopher, yogi, maharishi, maharishi, poet, and Indian nationalist. He was also a journalist, editing newspapers like Bande Mataram.
Bani Thani is an Indian painting in the Kishangarh school of paintings, painted by Nihal chand.
Charles Wood’s Despatch
Sir Charles Wood was the President of the Board of Control, played an important role in spreading English learning and female education in India.
Coastal sand mining and its impact
Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral. Composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical co
National Pension System (NPS)
The National Pension System (NPS) is a voluntary defined contribution pension system in India.
National Investment and Infrastructure Fund (NIIF)
National Investment and Infrastructure Fund (NIIF) is India’s 1st infrastructure specific investment fund or a sovereign wealth fund that was set up by the Government of India in February 2015.
National Intellectual Property Rights Policy
The National IPR Policy is a vision document that encompasses and brings to a single platform all IPRs.
Gross National Product (GNP)
Gross National Product (GNP) is the total value of all finished goods and services produced by a country’s citizens in a given financial year, irrespective of their location.
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the National Standards Body of India under Department of Consumer affairs, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Government of India.
AGMARK is a certification mark for agricultural produce, assuring that they conform to a grade standard notified by Directorate of Marketing & Inspection (DMI), Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers
SALIENT FEATURES OF THE CONSTITUTION
The Constitution of India is a very dynamic creation of our lawmakers., Modern Constitution, Longest known Constitutions of the World, More flexible than rigid one, Reconciliation of written Constitution with Parliamentary sovereignty, Role of convention
Salient Features of World’s Physical Geography.
The major forms of study within physical geography, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Coastal geography, Climatology, Biogeography
Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism
Extremism in India, Objectives of extremism, From radicalization to violent extremism, Developmental issues related to rise and spread of extremism, LEFT WING EXTREMISM, Initiatives for LWE Affected States
The Salient Aspects of Art Forms: from Ancient to Modern times
3 major constitute of art, Painting, Sculpting, Architecture, Ancient Indian Painting Tradition, Cave Painting, Medieval Indian Painting, Akbar, Successor Schools of Miniature painting
Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology
Contemporary Notable Scientists from India, Ashoke Sen, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Professor C. S. Unnikrishnan, White Revolution, Green Revolution, Satellite and Communication Revolution, Drugs and vaccines manufacturing, IT Revolution and Railway Compute
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovermental The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of states in South Asia.
New Development Bank (NDB)
National development bank is a multilateral development bank operated by the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). It headquartered at Shanghai, China.
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is a regional, intergovernmental political and economic union of six oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf that is also known as the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf.
Doctors Without Borders
Doctors Without Borders also known as Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) in French.
Kurds or Kurdish people are an Iranian ethnic and linguistic group native to a mountainous region of Western Asia known as Kurdistan, which spans south-eastern Turkey, north-western Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is an inter-governmental forum in the Pacific Rim that promotes free trade throughout the Asia-Pacific region.
India’s Plan to have its own space station
India is planning to establish its own space station by 2023 and the modalities will be worked out after its first manned space mission, Gaganyaan, is complete.
Minimum Support Price
The MSP-based procurement by the government has its origin in the rationing system introduced by the British during World War II. A department of food came up in 1942.
The Business Advisory Committee of Lok Sabha
The Committee is composed of 15 members including the Speaker.
Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) is the flagship scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) implemented by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), was launched on 15th July, 2015 (World Youth Skills Day).
Article 110 of the Indian constitution deals with the definition of money bills.
National commission to review the working of the constitution
The National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution (NCRWC) was set up by a resolution of the Government of India in 2000.
Election of President of India
The Indian President is the head of the state.
Leader of Opposition
In the year 1977- The leaders of opposition in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha were given statutory recognition.
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)
The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is an expendable, third generation, medium-lift launch vehicle designed and operated by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
Organic light-emitting diode
An organic light-emitting diode also known as organic electroluminescent (organic EL) diode, is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current.
3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file.
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) is an expendable space launch vehicle designed, developed, and operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to launch satellites and other space objects into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits.
M-STrIPES, short for Monitoring System for Tigers - Intensive Protection and Ecological Status is a software-based monitoring system launched across Indian tiger reserves by the Indian government.
Biological oxygen demand (BOD)
Biological oxygen demand (BOD) represents the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria and other microorganisms while they decompose organic matter under aerobic (oxygen is present) conditions at a specified temperature.
Official Secrets Act
Official Secrets Act has its roots in the British colonial era. The original version was The Indian Official Secrets Act (Act XIV), 1889. It was enacted with the main objective of muzzling the voice of a large number of newspapers that had come up in seve
Ecological, Economical and Social Benefits of Organic Farming
Organic farming is a type of agriculture or farming which avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, and livestock feed additives, Ecological and Economical benefits of Organic farming
Attorney General: the Chief legal adviser & lawyer of the GoI
The Attorney General (AG) of India is the highest law officer in the country. Article 76 of the Constitution has provided for the office of the Attorney General for India.
Probity in governance
The concept of the state occupies a central place in discourses on politics and administration. Government is a critical and inseparable element of the state.
Soil Health Card Scheme (SHC)
Soil Health Card Scheme is a scheme launched by the by the Department of Agriculture & Co-operation under the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India on 19 February 2015.
Treasury bills, also known as T-bills, are short term money market instruments.
National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL)
Indian Banks' Association (IBA)
Indian Banks' Association (IBA), an association of Indian banks and financial institutions, was formed on 26 September 1946 in Mumbai as a representative body of management of banking operating in India.
Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act (FRBM Act), 2003
The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act (FRBM Act), 2003, establishes financial discipline to reduce fiscal deficit, improve microeconomic management and strengthen fiscal prudence.
Agriculture and processed food production export Development Authority (APEDA)
Agriculture and processed food production export Development Authority (APEDA) is an apex body that promotes export trade of agricultural products in India.
Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation
Under the Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2017, wetlands are defined as ‘an area of marsh, fen, peatland or water;
Bali Ministerial Package
The Bali Package is a trade agreement resulting from the 9th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization in Bali, Indonesia on 3 to 7 December 2013.
Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA)
The TFA is the WTO’s first-ever multilateral accord that aim to simplify customs regulations for the cross border movement of goods.
Nuclear Security Summit (NSS)
The Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) is a world summit, aimed to prevent non-state actors, particularly terrorists, from acquiring nuclear material around the globe.
Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS)
The Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) is a series of biennial meetings, held between the littoral states of the Indian Ocean region, to enhance maritime cooperation among navies of the member states, by providing an open and inclusive forum for discussi
Broad Based Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA)
A free trade agreement between India and European Union (EU) had launched, officially called broad-based Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA).
Chabahar Port is a seaport in Chabahar located on the Makran coast of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, next to the Gulf of Oman and at the mouth of the Strait of Hormuz.
In 1983, the Central government appointed a three-member Commission on Centre-state relations under the chairmanship of R.S. Sarkaria, a retired judge of the Supreme Court. The other members of the committee were Shri B. Sivaraman and Dr. S.R. Sen.
The NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India) was established as the successor to the planning commission.
In September 1969, the DMK Government of Tamil Nadu appointed a three member committee under the chairmanship of Dr. P.V. Rajamannar to consider the entire question of Centre-state relations.
Ad hoc committees
Broadly, parliamentary committees are of two kinds–Standing Committees and Ad Hoc Committees.
Appointment of Governor
Articles 153 to 167 in Part VI of the Constitution deal with the state executive. The state executive consists of the governor, the chief minister, the council of ministers and the advocate general of the state.
Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants. Chlorophyll is essential in photosynthesis, allowing plants to absorb energy from light.
Lord Curzon’s policies and their impact on the Indian National Movement
Curzon was convinced of the necessity and urgency of a thorough reform of the entire administrative machinery.
National Highways Authority of India
In a bid to ensure that workers had a strong reason to stay back despite COVID-19 challengers, contractors working on National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) projects worked overtime.
Urbanization, Problems, and their Remedies
Reasons for Growth of Urbanisation in India, Problems associated with Urbanisation, as per UN projections in 2020, by 2050, 68% of the world population is expected to live in urban areas
The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was concluded between Mahatma Gandhi and the then viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5th March 1931.
Attitude is a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour.
Lead Bank Scheme
The Lead Bank Scheme, introduced towards the end of 1969, envisages assignment of lead roles to individual banks (both in public sector and private sector) for the districts allotted to them
Certificate of Deposits
The Certificate of deposit was first introduced in 1989 on the recommendation of the Vaghul Committee.
Banks Board Bureau (BBB)
Banks Board Bureau (BBB) is an autonomous body of the Government of India tasked to Search and Select apposite personages for Board of Public Sector Banks, Public Sector
A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument, in which one party promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other, either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under speci
A participatory note is an instrument issued by a registered foreign institutional investor (FII) to an overseas investor who wishes to invest in Indian stock markets without registering themselves with the market regulator, SEBI
Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR)
CRR is the percentage of money, which a bank has to keep with RBI in the form of cash.
The Assam government has proposed the realignment of a broad gauge railway line through the Deepor Beel, an ‘Important Bird Area’ designated under the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands.
Role of ethics & values in enhancing human capital, soft power and social harmony
Ethics may be defined as the systematic study of human actions from the point of view of their rightfulness or wrongfulness
Aadhaar is a 12-digit unique identity number that can be obtained voluntarily by residents or passport holders of India, based on their biometric and demographic data.
The Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLAD) was launched on 23rd December in 1993 to enable Members of Parliament (MPs)
National Legal Services Authority (NALSA)
National Legal Services Authority of India (NALSA) was formed on 9 November 1995 under the authority of the Legal Services Authorities Act 1987.
Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
Seventh Schedule of Indian Constitution
The constitutional provisions in India on the subject of distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States are defined under several articles.
Shenzhou-12, meaning ‘Divine Vessel’, will be the third of 11 missions needed to complete China's space station by 2022.
Has caste lost its relevance in understanding the multi-cultural Indian Society?
Caste has for long been viewed as a distinctive feature of Indian society. It is not merely an institution that characterizes the structure of social stratification in India.
A government panel studying COVID-19 vaccine side effects have confirmed the first death, due to anaphylaxis, following COVID-19 vaccination.
It is the process through which fertile and productive land become degraded and unfit for useful activities like agriculture.
Circum- Pacific Zone
The Ring of Fire, also referred to as the Circum-Pacific Belt/Zone, is a path along the Pacific Ocean characterized by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Its length is approximately 40,000 kilometers.
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are tubes made of carbon with diameters typically measured in nanometers.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a wide-ranging branch of computer science concerned with building smart machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence.