Date : 07 Mar 2022
Tiger Density in IndiaTags :
Why in News?
- Preliminary findings of a study by the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) suggest that the density of tigers in the Sunderbans may have reached the carrying capacity of the mangrove forests, leading to frequent dispersals and a surge in human-wildlife conflict.
- Availability of food and space is the primary factor that determines how many tigers a forest can hold. And often, food is space for the tiger.
- In the Terai and Shivalik hills habitat — think Corbett tiger reserve, for example — 10-16 tigers can survive in 100 sq km. This slides to 7-11 tigers per 100 sq km in the reserves of north-central Western Ghats such as Bandipur, and to 6-10 tigers per 100 sq km in the dry deciduous forests, such as Kanha, of central India.
- The correlation between prey availability and tiger density is fairly established. There is even a simple linear regression explaining the relationship in the 2018 All-India Tiger report that put the carrying capacity in the Sunderbans “at around 4 tigers” per 100 sq km.
- A joint Indo-Bangla study in 2015 pegged the tiger density at 2.85 per 100 sq km after surveying eight blocks spanning 2,913 sq km across the international borders in the Sunderbans.
- The ongoing WII study indicates a density of 3-5 tigers in the Sunderbans. Given that 88 (86-90) tigers were estimated in 2,313 sq km of the Sundarbans in 2018, the population has been close to its so-called saturation point in the mangrove delta for some time.
Some Related Facts
- With 14 tigers per 100 sq km, Jim Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand reports the highest tiger density among India’s 50 tiger reserves
- India is home to 51 tiger reserves spread across 18 states.
- India achieved the target of doubling the tiger population 4 years ahead of schedule of the St Petersburg Declaration on tiger Conservation
- According to a report released by the Union Environment Department, Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR) has the highest tiger numbers with 252 inside the reserve and 266 using the reserve. What’s even more satisfying is the fact that tigers are evenly spread here.
- Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR) is followed by Nagarhole tiger reserve in Karnataka with 127 tigers, Bandipur Tiger Reserve, again in Karnataka, with 126 tigers, and Bandhavgarh and Kaziranga tiger reserves with 104 tigers each