Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

21 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

The decline in the functioning of India’s Parliament and state assemblies as well is caused by one primary reason - the lack of impartiality of the Speaker.

Do you agree? Substantiate your answer. Give some suggestions to improve the functioning of the above mentioned legislative institutions.

 

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)

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20 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 INTERNAL SECURITY  
Question :

The Northeast has a long history of governance failures widening fault lines and leading to divisive ethnic mobilisations and violence. Discuss the steps taken by the government to shape ethnic, regional and political relations in this region.

 

(GS MAINS PAPER 3 - Internal Security)

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19 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 INDIAN ECONOMY     
Question :

In view of India’s heavy dependence on imports for edible oils, efforts are on for increasing the domestic production of edible oils. How government’s newly launched initiative National Mission on Edible Oils – Oil Palm (NMEO-OP) can prove to be a game-changer?

(GS MAINS; PAPER 3)

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India is one of the major oilseeds grower and importer of edible oils. India's palm oil imports are almost 60% of its total vegetable oil imports. The domestic consumption of edible oils has increased substantially and has touched the level of 18.90 million tonnes in 2011-12 and is likely to increase further. A substantial portion of our requirement of edible oil is met through import of palm oil from Indonesia and Malaysia. It is, therefore, necessary to exploit domestic resources to maximize production to ensure edible oil security for the country 
To proceed further towards production of Palm Oil, Government announced a National Mission on Edible Oil-Oil Palm (NMEO-OP), with an investment of over Rs 11,000 crore over a five-year period.
NMEO-OP proposed to have an additional 6.5 lakh hectares for palm oil by 2025-26.It will involve raising the area under oil palm cultivation to 10 lakh hectares by 2025-26 and 16.7 lakh hectares by 2029-30. Oil palm farmers will be provided financial assistance and will get remuneration under a price and viability formula. The Viability Formula is a Minimum Support Price-type mechanism and the government will fix this at 14.3% of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) price. It will eventually go up to 15.3%. Special assistance will be given to replant old gardens for their rejuvenation.
The emphasis of the scheme will also be in India’s North-Eastern (NE) states and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands due to the conducive weather conditions in the regions. To attract industry to the NE and Andaman regions, a provision of Rs 5 crore of 5 mt/hr (million tonne per hectare) with pro-rata increase for higher capacity will be given.
Oil Palm is comparatively a new crop in India and is the highest vegetable oil yielding perennial crop. With quality planting materials, irrigation and proper management, there is potential of achieving 20-30 MT Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFBs) per ha after attaining the age of 5 years. Therefore, National Mission on Edible Oil-Oil Palm (NMEO-OP), can play be crucial towards achieving Atmanirbhar Bharat in Oil seed production 


18 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 INDIAN ECONOMY        
Question :

What are Oil and Recapitalisation Bonds? What are their impacts on the fiscal health of the Indian Economy. How will it effect the investments in the Economy?

(GS MAINS PAPER - 3)

 

Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
Recapitalisation Bonds is a government bond that is an instrument that can be termed as a new capital to improve the balance sheet of the public sector companies that are undergoing credit crunch. 
Recapitalisation bonds is a broader term that could be for oil, food, fertilizers, PSU Banks etc. With these Bonds government raise money from the market with a promise to repay the face value of the maturity date and a periodic interest.
In recent days, rise in petroleum prices and share of government taxes has come in picture as government has defended the higher excise as some of the oil-bonds are maturing in recent month and following years.
Be it oil subsidy when India had Administered Price Mechanism (APM) system in place in oil sector or food/fertilizer subsidy or the much talked about accumulation of non-performing assets (NPAs) for financial companies, particularly Public Sector Banks, instead of taking refinancing risks that would have had a major bearing on fiscal deficit the government retorted to issuing Recapitalization Bonds. 
What is the need?
Government being the biggest shareholder in public sector oil marketing companies, public sector banks, food and fertilizer companies fulfils the responsibility of infusing capital by using different instruments. 
By issuing long dated special securities as compensation in lieu of cash subsidies that could impact government’s overall debt/GDP ratio, Recapitalization Bond is one such instrument that is a preferred option to mitigate credit rating risks in short-term, these longer dated recapitalization bonds, staggered over 10-15 years’ maturity makes refinancing risks lower.
Though, these securities may carry a marginally higher coupon over the yield of the dated securities of comparable maturity, but this is an attractive route that it does not add to the fiscal deficit, but the government is liable to pay the interest and face value of the bonds on maturity.
Recapitalisation Bonds – The Method
To ease out the credit crunch, government issues recapitalization bonds that such companies subscribe as in investment. The money realized by the government through these bond sales, goes back to these companies as capital thus strengthening their balance-sheets. The money raised by the government for subscribing recap bonds from banks and financial institutions is free from becoming a bad loan as it comes with sovereign guarantee. 
Impact on the fiscal health of Indian Economy
Being cash neutral transection, such bonds have limited immediate impact on fiscal deficit; fiscal deficit is impacted only by the interest cost on the bonds that the government pays every year. On the other hand, this shore up their capital reserves and enhance credit flow into the economy.
Since it is a long-term debt, it provides time to banks, oil-marketing companies, fertilizer companies to improve their balance-sheets by increasing their credit and private investment. The positive aspect is as the financial stability returns, the government, then, can retire the debt from the proceeds by selling the equities purchased earlier, once companies’ situation gets better.
How will it affect the investments in the Economy?
The banking sector is an industry and a section of the economy devoted to the holding of financial assets for others and investing those financial assets as a leveraged way to create more wealth. 
This process in the economy brings about a chain effect as a strong financial infrastructure is a catalytic agent that affects the growth. With country’s stable fiscal and robust growth, the liquidity in the system fuels private sector capital expenditure and contribute in financial stability and sustain economic growth.  


17 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY    
Question :

Electric Vehicles are the future; but a premature transition though government policy is fraught with many problems. Comment.

(GS MAINS PAPER 3)

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Recently government has approved a 10,000 crores programme under the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles in India II for promotion of Electric Mobility in the country. Government also too some other measure like GST reduction for electric vehicles from 12% to 5%, etc., categorization of charging of batteries as a service, which will help charging stations operate without licenses, additional loan for purchase of EV as to foster the transition from Combustion engine to EV. Although the Initiatives are intended to make India EVs manufacturing hub, addressing the issue of environmental pollution and fuel security etc. but premature transition may cause various problems.
Manufacturing of EV motors require sound proof technology, this includes good quality electric materials, better testing infrastructure etc. for durable motors. There are only 250 charging stations in the country and they mostly catering to three-wheelers therefore to make this transition viable, charging infrastructure is a key factor. A longer-term policy priority has to be the setting up of lithium battery production and solar charging infrastructure of a scale that matches the ambition. Lack of any known reserves of lithium and cobalt, which makes government dependent on imports of lithium-ion batteries from Japan and China.
The budgetary measures will have an immediate impact on the pricing of electric vehicles and bring in more models, but it will take a sustained effort by the Centre, in partnership with State governments, to enable a fast rollout of entire ecosystem for the successful transition.


16 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

What do you mean by Self-Help Groups (SHG) ? Discuss their role amidst the COVID19 pandemic. How various Self-Help Groups have strengthened India’s fight against the virus through multiple initiatives?

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)

 

Hint: ATMANIRBHAR NARISHAKTI

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14 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 
Question :

What do you understand by terms MDR-TB and XDR-TB? What measures government has adopted for its containment and spread in community to make India TB Mukt Bharat (or eliminate TB) by 2025.

(GS MAINS PAPER 3)

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Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a strain of TB that cannot be treated with the two most powerful first-line treatment anti-TB drugs. Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that are resistant to several of the most effective anti-TB drugs. XDR-TB strains arose after the mismanagement of individuals with MDR-TB. Government launched the TB-Mukt Bharat to take the activities under the National Strategic Plan for TB Elimination in a mission mode for ending the epidemic by 2025.
The NSP for TB elimination 2017–25 is a framework to guide the activities of all stakeholders including the national and state governments, development partners, civil society organizations, international agencies, research institutions, private sector, and many others whose work is relevant to TB elimination in India. It aims to direct the attention of all stakeholders on the most important interventions or activities that the RNTCP believes will bring about significant changes in the incidence, prevalence and mortality of TB.
Government is making efforts are also being made to make health systems more accessible and reliable and wants to ensure that those seeking care trust us and get the appropriate care for completing treatment. It is striving to create more labs, point of care tests, an assured drug pipeline, access to new drugs and, most importantly, provide counselling and support for those affected by engagement with Private sector 
The government machinery at the field level is working with communities and provide free diagnosis and treatment to every affected individual. Recognizing that medicines are not enough, it  launched the Nikshay Poshan Yojana under which TB patients receive Rs 500 every month while on treatment to ensure that the patients have economic support and nutrition during the required period.,  
Every death from this preventable and treatable disease implies failure in the duties as citizens, doctors, administrators and public health professionals. There is need to join hands to ensure a TB-free India. 


13 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

What is the significance of the Coalition on Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) at this crucial juncture as the world focuses on global resilience and recovery, following the collective global experience of managing the ravages of the pandemic.

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)

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12 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

"A sense of accommodation by the treasury benches and a sense of responsibility by the Opposition benches is the balance essential for the smooth running of Parliament." Comment.
Suggest some ways  to avoid  parliamentary disruptions and effective functioning of the Parliament.

 

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)

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11 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 
Question :

What is the importance of Maritime Security? Suggest the ways to effectively counter threats to maritime safety and security.

 

(GS MAINS PAPER - 2)

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