Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

10 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 SOCIAL ISSUES AND SOCIAL JUSTICE 
Question :

What do you mean by 'New Social Contract' for Indigenous people advocated by the UN. What benefits will be achieved with this initiative?


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07 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT 
Question :

Discuss the ways in which National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) project is going to minimize the climatic change impacts on agriculture.


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Climate change poses complex challenges like multiple abiotic stresses on crops and livestock, shortage of water, land degradation and loss of biodiversity. Apart from these, extreme weather events like Floods, droughts causing shortage of food grains resulting in price rise and inflation affecting poor the most. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to enhance the resilience of Indian Agriculture to climate change. Both application of improved technologies and new policies will contribute to resilience.
In National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Project it is contemplated both to develop climate resilient technologies through short term and long term research, and also demonstrate the existing technologies on farmers’ fields for enhancing the resilience. The scheme attempts to develop and promote climate resilient technologies in agriculture which will address vulnerable areas of the country.

Some of Features of Project:
  • It includes comprehensive field evaluation of new and emerging approaches of crop cultivation like aerobic rice, conservation Agriculture practices etc., for their contribution to reduce the GHG emissions.
  • It gives special emphasis to livestock and fishery sectors including aquaculture by Identification and characterization of adaptive traits in the indigenous resilient breeds
  • It is to enhance resilience in agriculture by demonstrating site specific climate resilient agricultural practices and to adopt these practices by farmers.
  • It promotes in-situ moisture conservation, biomass mulching, residue incorporation instead of burning, brown and green manuring, water harvesting and recycling for supplemental irrigation, improved drainage in flood prone areas, conservation tillage where appropriate, artificial ground water recharge and water saving irrigation methods
  • It promotes drought/temperature tolerant varieties, advancement of planting dates of Rabi crops in areas with terminal heat stress, water saving paddy cultivation methods (SRI, aerobic, direct seeding), frost management in horticulture through fumigation, staggered community nurseries for delayed monsoon, custom hiring centers for timely completion of farm operations, location specific intercropping systems with high sustainable yield index.
  • It includes Institutional interventions either by strengthening the existing ones or initiating new ones relating to community seed bank, fodder bank, commodity groups, custom hiring center, collective marketing group, introduction of weather index based insurance and climate literacy through a village weather station. The program also aims at development of an enabling mechanism at the village level for continued adoption of such practices in a sustainable manner.
  • Experiences of NICRA project are to be disseminated to all concerned development departments for upscaling the interventions across the country. Capacity building on various resilient practices/ technologies, location specific mitigation and adaptation strategies, use of farm machinery, seed bank, fodder bank etc.
With its new approach, the project is expected Enhanced resilience of agricultural production in vulnerable regions of the country.

06 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 SOCIAL ISSUES AND SOCIAL JUSTICE 
Question :

Suggest some ways to bridge the gap of accessibility to justice between the highly privileged and the most vulnerable.


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09 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 MODERN HISTORY & POST INDEPENDENCE 
Question :

In strengthening the fight against colonialism Quit India Movement was the last great nationalist campaign. Discuss the mobilization and leadership role Mahatama Gandhi played in this movement.


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The Quit India Movement (QIM) started in the backdrop of the failure of Cripps mission. This movement happened to be the last major movement before India gained independence from British rule. QIM was also the last big struggle that Gandhi Ji led however he was arrested by the British authority right after the announcement of QIM.
Right before the start of the movement, Gandhi Ji gave some special instructions to different sections of society. For example, students if confidence can leave the study, Peasant should not pay rent to those Zamindar who are pro-government, Government servants need not resign but declare their allegiance to the Congress. These instructions enable people to take part in this movement on a large scale. The extent and nature of mobilization took various forms. In some areas, resistance was so strong that parallel governments came into the picture.
Apart from that Gandhi Ji also gave an important mantra of 'Do or Die' He believed that either people participation will free India or die in an attempt to liberate it. Although Gandhi Ji was in jail during the whole period of this movement, there also he worked for the support of people's mobilization and provided moral support to them.
In February 1943 he started a fast to condemn the violence of the state but he did not condemn the violence that resulted from people participating in the Quit India movement. However, this leadership role that Gandhi Ji provided was not unique to this movement only, he had developed various methods for the struggle against the unjust rule and his followers were trained to understand his idea of satyagraha and ahimsa.
Overall, the quit India movement shaken the root of British rule in India and shown the moral corruption that persisted in British policy. Right after the QIM and the end of the Second World War, the exit of the British government from Indian soil became inevitable.

08 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-4 ETHICS, INTEGRITY & APTITUDE 
Question :

What are the ethical and attitudinal lessons learnt from the mega event like Tokyo Olympics?



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The Tokyo Olympics has been a golden period for sports followers. Sports relax and entertain. They also teach us some important spiritual, life-improving lessons. Some of the noteworthy and praiseworthy gestures we saw during this mega event are: 
Maintaining Grace and Magnanimity: In a high jump event at the Olympics, we saw Qatar’s athlete giving up an opportunity to go for a solo gold medal because his Italian opponent was injured. He shared the gold medal with the Italian and ensured that the spirit of Olympics wins. There was grace and magnanimity to be seen. Similarly, in life, we too should be prepared to share the spoils. We grow in stature when we bring up others with ourselves. one will end up being a winner.
Teamwork: In football, the striker in the front scored a goal. Though the goal is solely marked in his name, the ball actually reaches him after several passes made by his teammates, dodging the opposing defenders. The striker’s role is to put it in the goal post from a short distance. He is credited with the goal scored. Similarly, in life, a significant portion of our success can be attributed to our team and our family. We must acknowledge their role.
Reducing Errors: It is seen that in any sport, a player or a team with fewer unforced errors will win, as compared to the one who may hit more winners. The recently concluded Wimbledon final is a fine example. The winner, Novak Djokovic, made only 21 unforced errors, and his opponent Matteo Berrettini, more than twice as many, 48. Berrettini had 57 winners, as opposed to Djokovic’s 31. Trying to hit winners also carries the risk of committing mistakes. Similarly, in life, if we can avoid mistakes like taking disproportionate financial risks, we will most likely end up a winner.
Focus and Concentration: The most embarrassing situation is when a player scores an ‘own goal’. This happens mostly due to lack of focus. Similarly, in life, by lowering one’s guard, one could become a victim of fraud. We should remain focused to ensure that we don’t put ourselves in harm’s way.
Derive Enjoyment at One’s Level: It is not for everyone to become the greatest of all time, a legend. Every generation throws up only a few great names that are revered for a long time. A vast majority play the game knowing that they may never be legends, but they play because of their passion for the game. Similarly, in life, for example in civil services, everybody cannot become the cabinet secretary or chief secretary, but one can create a niche that can make a person happy and successful.
Inspiring Others: The captain of the team is not necessarily the best player, however, he is a motivator and has the ability to bring out the best in his team. He has the heart to take the blame for the defeat and credit the team for success. Similarly, in life, we may not be the best engineer, lawyer or a bureaucrat leading a team, but if one has the qualities that inspire others to respect him/her, one can lead successfully.
Down, but Not-out: Instances of turning the game around in one’s favour are many when all seems lost. We have seen players and teams doing the impossible through sheer grit. Similarly, in life, patience, perseverance, confidence in your ability play an important role to ensure that you come out successful from a difficult situation.
Therefore, we can say that sports teach us life changing lessons and it is still more important because even the persons with less education can take a leaf or two from the values and attitudes displayed by sportsman. A civil servant inherent with these qualities will certainly move up in the hierarchy and command the respect of the citizens.

04 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 SOCIAL ISSUES AND SOCIAL JUSTICE 
Question :

In context to the Indian Women's  performance in Tokyo Olympics, Critically analyse how women have been able to break "Glass Ceiling".

(GS Main Paper 1)

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The term glass ceiling is a metaphor used to describe the invisible barrier or invisible upper limit that prevents women to rise above this limit in any organisation or in any institution.
Tokyo Olympics 2020 will be considered as the most diverse and gender-equal Olympics out of all the Olympics that have been held so far. According to the International Olympics Committee (IOC), almost 49 per cent of the athletes that have participated in Tokyo Olympics 2020 are women and this is the first gender-balanced game in the history of the Olympics game.
Indian women's performance in Tokyo Olympics is a concrete example of breaking the glass ceiling. Indian women participated in several games where only men used to participate earlier. But today they not only participated but also win the game. For example, Mira Bai Chanu won silver in weight lifting.
Today Women have been able to break the ceiling to some extent because -
  1. Understanding is the foundation to combat the glass ceiling, and through the understanding of the gender discrepancies, women are able to break different kinds of barriers, including the gender roles perceptions.
  2. By recognizing the way gender equality need arising and the gender roles are just social constructs that are unique to different culture, Women are actively involved in the conversation with society over the issue of the gender roles, gender biases and stereotypes that limit women from moving up in their professional life. This process not only enhances their understanding but also of their surroundings of how to overcome it.
  3. Establishment of anti-discrimination and gender-neutral policies by several governments and active involvement of international organizations on gender issues helping women to combat the glass ceiling.
  4. Gendered roles are getting discarded due to the transmission of information technology and education facilities in this globalized world. People are getting aware of the existing gender-related biases and taking an active part in breaking them. For example, recently Supreme Court of India has delivered a judgement through which girls can also take part in prestigious National Defence Academy (NDA) exam.
As we have mention it's only true to some extent that women have been able to break the glass ceiling In the 21st century but still there is a mile to go. 
There are several facts that project that the glass ceiling is still prominent in several fields. For example, in the majority of the companies, 90% of leadership roles are held by men, and only 38.6% of managerial roles are given to women. Women get less wage than men for the same kind of job and are often treated as incompetent and face sexual violence at the workplace. Even after 75 years of independence, there has been no women chief justice of India.  
Although phenomenon like glass ceiling still exists yet, Tokyo Olympic witnesses the breaking of the glass ceiling in sports. This phenomenon can be addressed only through a coordinated approach by all stakeholders of society. The absence of the glass ceiling will help in the establishment of an egalitarian society where both men and women have equal opportunities to grow and live up to their best form. Today the notion of the glass ceiling is breaking because of several factors. The recent Tokyo Olympics is a concrete example where 49% of women participated in such games thah once used to be dominated by men.

05 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 
Question :

Usage of Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (NavIC system) has increased in sectors like transportation and personal mobility. Discuss

(GS Mains Paper 3)

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03 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 INDIAN ECONOMY 
Question :
Inflation in India is on the rise; so is the case on global front. Is this really a cause of worry for Central Banks at present. If so, in India's context discuss the measures take by the RBI. 

GS Mains Paper 3

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01 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

Discuss the issue of ‘Parliamentary Disruption’ in India. How is it impacting India’s democratic legislative process? [GS Mains Paper II]


India Today
Live Mint

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31 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 
Question :

"India and the U.S. have a lot in common, but it is the differences that need attention." In the context of this statement discuss the India- USA relations. [GS Mains Paper II]

Hint: The Hindu


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