Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

30 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 INDIAN ECONOMY 
Question :

“The three farm laws are only a part of the far wider set of economic reforms that will be needed to stabilize Indian agriculture. The guiding principle for these reforms must be to create conditions that allow farm households to maximize their income while minimizing the overall level of risk in Indian agriculture.” Critically Analyse.

[GS Mains Paper III]

 

Hint:

https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/farm-laws-india-protest-7427334/

https://www.indiatoday.in/news-analysis/story/what-are-farm-laws-farmers-protest-msp-1749723-2020-12-15

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28 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 MODERN HISTORY & POST INDEPENDENCE 
Question :

“Though Lord Ripon proceeded cautiously, some of his early measures restored faith among the Indians in the liberal tradition of England”. Discuss.

(GS MAINS PAPER 1)

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After the end of Lytton viceroy ship, the British Government under the labour party-appointed Lord Ripon as the new viceroy of India. He was very sympathetic toward the cause of Indian citizens and worked in various areas to restore faith among the Indians in the liberal tradition of England.
First and foremost, Ripon favoured the policy of equality embedded in the liberal tradition of England. For this to come into practice, he abolished the notorious vernacular press act which discriminated between the local and English language newspapers. His policy was even directed toward bringing the principle of equal treatment of law. With this respect, he brought the Ilbert bill which sought to abolish judicial disqualification based on race distinctions. Through this bill, he wanted to give Indian judges the power to hear cases against British citizens. However, this bill was not able to pass due to various opposition from the British community.
His work for the improvement of local government promoted the idea of decentralization of power and greater participation of people in decision making. The series of enactments would set up local self-governing bodies in the rural and urban areas. For this, he is known as the ‘Father of Local-Self Government in India.
Under his guidance, the first factory act 1881 was enacted to safeguard the interest of children and women who were working in Indian factories. He promoted the Indian famine codes which worked in the area of making authorities capable and responsible to deal with famine.
Under his rule, the Hunter commission was appointed to examine the condition of education in India which shows that he was emphatical toward the cause of promoting better education for Indians.
Although the above-mentioned points show that Ripon was working for the interest and betterment of the Indian people but his ability to bring far-flung changes was crippled by the collective power of the European community living in India and this become clear during Ilbert bill controversy.
Nevertheless, the Ripon rule usher in a new era for India’s freedom struggle movements and gave a sense to the people of India that justice and fair play could not be expected where interests of the European community were involved.


27 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 INDIAN ECONOMY 
Question :

“The mere growth in a sector doesn’t translate to benefits for workers.”

In the light of this statement analyse in detail how it may not be prudent to rely on Sectoral growth as a measure of economic welfare. [GS Mains Paper III]

Hint: Indian Express

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26 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 INDIAN ECONOMY 
Question :

Analyse the disruptive impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the food security and livelihoods of the poor and marginalised. [GS Mains Paper III]

Hint: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/lessons-from-indias-food-security-response/article35529291.ece

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24 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 MODERN HISTORY & POST INDEPENDENCE 
Question :

Discuss the role of Bal Gangadhar Tilak in the Indian National movement.

(GS Mains Paper 1)

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Bal Gangadhar Tilak, journalist, philosopher-politician, and maker of modern India, his contribution is immense as he is said to be a pioneer of ideas of swaraj and swadeshi and used culture, education and the media.
Role of Bal Gangadhar Tilak in Indian national movement -
  • Tilak ignited a sense of patriotism and nationalism in the advent of the 20th century. He ignited patriotic consciousness among the masses during one of the most difficult periods in the freedom struggle
  • Along with two other congress leaders, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal (popularly known as Lal, Bal and Pal), he started the extremist phase of INC, which focused on mass mobilisation of masses and played an active role during the Swadeshi movement. Tilak started the Swadeshi Movement (1905), which was not just about boycotting British goods, but his larger objective was promoting indigenous entrepreneurship
  • Tilak gave a three-point programme for national awakening – Swaraj, Swadeshi and Nationalist Education based on vernacular. For the cultivation of an enlightened mind, he used the media in the form of two newspapers, Kesari (Marathi) and Maratha (English), and national education through Deccan Education Society, an institute he established.
  • Tilak rejected the narrow view of Swaraj and presented a broad view of Swaraj which means Swaraj is the rule of and rule for the common people of India.
  • Tilak laid Foundation for the Gandhian way of Mass Movement. His formula for preparing the ground for political activism through culture, education and media was so powerful that later on Mahatma Gandhi, Babasaheb Ambedkar and others adopted this path. Moreover, he prepared a fertile ground for Swaraj through his home-rule movement.
  • Tilak also played a key role in the signing of the Lucknow Pact between the Indian national congress and the Muslim league. This brought two communities together during the 1920s to fight against foreign rule.
  • Tilak used Hindu festivals like Ganapati Mahotsav and other festivals for the Shake of mobilizing people. While on the one hand it caused a cultural revival of Hindus and on the other created suspicion in Muslims. Some historians blame Tilak for bringing communalism in the freedom struggle
Hence because of his work British colonial authorities called him the Father of Indian unrest and Mahatma Gandhi called him ‘The Maker of Modern India.’ Tilak not only revived patriotic consciousness but also revived the spirit of economic nationalism for indigenously manufactured goods and striving for social integration through culture (Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat).


23 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

“The reforms in cooperative sector should not be at the cost of federal principles.” Discuss this statement in the context of the Supreme Court’s recent verdict on the 97th Constitution amendment.

[GS Mains Paper 2]

Hint: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/limits-of-cooperation-the-hindu-editorial-on-reforms-in-cooperative-sector/article35478339.ece

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22 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 INDIAN ECONOMY 
Question :

“Man cannot live by the Internet alone”. In the context of this statement discuss the significance of agriculture and rural economy in India.

[GS Mains Paper III]

Hint: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/man-cannot-live-by-the-internet-alone/article35453575.ece
https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/the-rural-economy-can-jump-start-a-revival/article34957515.ece
https://www.thehindu.com/brandhub/reinventing-indian-agriculture/article33667799.ece

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21 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 SOCIAL ISSUES AND SOCIAL JUSTICE 
Question :

“India is neither a melting pot nor a salad bowl but a thali.” In the light of this statement discuss how communalism acts as a catalyst to political and social tensions in the state.

[GS Mains Paper I]

Hint: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/accepting-radical-otherness/article35433525.ece
https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/religion-and-freedom-the-hindu-editorial-on-india-and-communal-violence/article31475603.ece

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20 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question :

What do you understand by the ‘Drain of Wealth’? Discuss its implications on India during the British Rule.  
(GS Mains; Paper I)

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The Theory of Drain of Wealth was developed by the Indian nationalist thinkers mainly with a view to analyse the main causes of poverty in India. The nationalist’s definition of the drain was the idea of transfer of wealth and commodities from India to England without the former getting back any economic, commercial or material returns. Hence the Drain in the Indian conception inevitably took the form of an excess of export over import. The Drain of Wealth was referred to as typically “a phenomenon of the colonial rule.” The transfer of resources from India to England either without getting anything in return or getting only a disproportionately small part of such a transfer of resources has come to be described as the Drain of India’s resources. The person to draw pointed attention to this drain of resources from India to England was Dababhai Naoroji in his book the Poverty and Un-British Rule in India. Dadabhai Naoroji made an attempt, in his book, to explain the causes of the drain, to measure the amount of the drain flowing from India to England, and to trace the consequences of such drain. Dadabhai Naoroji tried to prove that the prevailing mass poverty in India was the direct consequence, among other reasons, for the drain of resources from India to England. 
According to Dadabhai Naoroji, the following forms of drain can be identified: 
  • Remittances to England by Europeans for the support of families and education of children-a feature of the colonial system of government. 
  • Remittances of savings by the employees of the company, since most employs preferred to invest at home.
  • Remittances for purchase of British goods for the consumption of British employees as well as purchase by them of British goods in India.
  • Government purchase of store manufacture in Britain. 
  • Interest charges on public debt held in Britain (excluding interest payments on railway loans and debts incurred for productive works.) 
In addition, the Government of India had to make huge payments to people in England on account of political, administrative and commercial connections established between India and England. These commitments were called Home Charges. The home charges consisted of many items such as Interest in public debt raised in England at comparatively higher rates; Annuities on account of railway and irrigation work; Payment in connection with civil departments where Englishmen were employed; India office expenses including pensions to retired officials who had worked in India or who worked for India in England and retired there, pensions to army and naval personnel, and their furlough allowances.
The factors which resulted in the external drain were: - Firstly, India is governed was a foreign government. Secondly, India did not invite immigrants, which bring labour and capital for economic growth. Thirdly, India paid for Britain’s civil administration and occupational army. Fourthly, India bore the burden of empire building both in and outside of its borders. Fifthly, opening the country to free trade was actually a way to exploit India by offering highly paid jobs to foreign personnel. Lastly, the principal income earners would buy outside of India or leave with the money as they were mostly foreign personnel. 
Till the Battle of Plassey i.e., 1757, the European traders imported bullion into India in return of the export of the Indian cotton and silk goods which had a flourishing market in the west. But the situation was soon reversed after the conquest of Bengal after the Battle of Plassey by the English East India Company, when the company not only stopped importing bullion into India, but began to purchase goods from the surplus revenues of Bengal and the profits made from the duty-free inland trade. This was the beginning of the plunder of Bengal and by the end of the 18th century the whole country became a playground of plunder by the British Government. India had to pay a very heavy price for two hundred years of colonial rule. The continuous plunder of India’s raw materials, resources and wealth made Britain enrich itself at the cost of India’s growing poverty. Thus, the economic exploitation of India at the hand of the colonial government was so massive the it left India with ‘poverty amidst plenty’.


19 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 INDIAN ECONOMY 
Question :

In the context of all embracing development in India, discuss the importance of the inclusive growth and also highlight the initiatives taken by the government to ensure multidimensional inclusive growth.

[GS Mains Paper III]

Hint: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/fashioning-the-framework-of-a-new-india/article30745303.ece
https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/the-mirage-of-inclusive-growth/article8656382.ece
https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/an-inclusive-growth-policy/article5872724.ece

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