Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

06 Jul 2021  
Question : ‘While over the time India has transformed considerably, the persistence of the Dowry
system shows that social norms have prevailed over law’. Discuss. [GS Mains Paper II]

: Hindustan Times
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05 Jul 2021  
Question : “Restoring health of every constituent sector is a must for long-term growth in exports.”
Elaborate. [GS Mains Paper III]
Hint: The Hindu
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03 Jul 2021  
Question : What does this quote mean to you?
“Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's needs, but not every man's greed.”- Mahatma

Topic: Environmental Ethics
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Question : Plausibly, Emotional Intelligence can play a critical role in an effective implementation of the relief measures for tackling the menace of Covid-19. Comment. [GS Mains Paper IV] 

Topic: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
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02 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY    
Question : Do you agree with the statement that ‘the withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement in 1922 was the proof of Mahatma Gandhi’s concern for the propertied classes of Indian Society?

(GS Mains; Paper I)

Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
To withdraw the non-cooperative movement was condemned, but to see it as proof of the Mahatma Gandhi’s concern for the propertied classes of Indian society is one of the possibility among the factors that led to the decision to withdraw. At the present stage of research, it is not possible to argue this position with a great force. 
In response to the violence at Chauri Chaura, Gandhiji withdrew the movement. It is argued that Gandhiji did not withdraw the movement simply because of his belief in the necessity of nonviolence, rather, he withdrew it because the action at Chauri Chaura was a symbol and an indication of the growing militancy of the Indian masses, of their growing radicalization, of their willingness to launch an attack on the status quo of property relations. Frightened by this radical possibility and by the prospect of the movement going out of his hands and moving into the hands of radical forces, and in order to protect the interests of landlords and capitalists who would inevitably be at the receiving end of this violence, Gandhiji cried halt to the movement. 
Bardoli resolution, the resolution of the Congress Working Committee of 12 February 1922 while announcing the withdrawal, asked the peasants to pay taxes and tenants to pay rents is believed to be supportive proof. This is considered as the real though hidden motive behind the historic decision of February 1922. 
But the reality is that the crowd at Chauri Chaura had not demonstrated any intention of attacking landlords or overturning the structure of property relations, they were merely angered by the overbearing behavior of policemen and vented their wrath by attacking them. Peasant unrest in most of Avadh and Malabar had died out long before this time, and the Eka movement that was on in some of the rural areas of Avadh showed no signs of wanting to abolish the zamindari system; it only wanted zamindars to stop ‘illegal’ cesses and arbitrary rent enhancements. In fact, one of the items of the oath that was taken by peasants who joined the Eka movement was that they would ‘pay rent regularly at Kharif and Rabi.” The no-tax movement in Guntur was very much within the framework of the Non-Cooperation Movement; it was directed against the government and remained totally peaceful. Moreover, it was already on the decline before February 1922. It is difficult to discern where the threat from radical tendencies is actually located. That the Bardoli resolution which announced the withdrawal also contained clauses which asked peasants to pay up taxes and tenants to pay up rents, and assured zamindars that the Congress had no intention of depriving them of their rights, is also no proof of hidden motives. The Congress had at no stage during the movement sanctioned non-payment of rent or questioned the rights of zamindars; the resolution was merely a reiteration of its position on this issue. Non-payment of taxes was obviously to cease if the movement as a whole was being withdrawn.
Gandhiji had repeatedly warned that he did not even want any non-violent movement in any other part of the country while he was conducting mass civil disobedience in Bardoli. In a situation of mass ferment and activity, the movement might easily take a violent turn, either due to its own volatile nature or because of provocation by the authorities concerned (as had actually happened in Bombay in November 1921 and later in Chauri Chaura); also if violence occurred anywhere it could easily be made the excuse by the Government to launch a massive attack on the movement as a whole. The Government could always cite the actual violence in one part as proof of the likelihood of violence in another part of the country, and thus justify its repression. This would upset the whole strategy of nonviolent civil disobedience which was based on the principle that the forces of repression would always stand exposed since they would be using armed force against peaceful civil resisters. 
There are also some indications that Gandhiji’s decision may have been prompted by the fact that in many parts of the country, by the second half of 1921, the movement had shown clear signs of being on the ebb. Students had started drifting back to schools and colleges, lawyers and litigants to law courts, the commercial classes showed signs of weariness and worry at the accumulating stocks of foreign cloth, attendance at meetings and rallies had dwindled, both in the urban and rural areas. Thus, the mass enthusiasm that was evident all over the country in the first part of 1921 had, perhaps, receded. 
Therefore, argument that the withdrawal of the movement was the proof of Mahatma Gandhi’s concern for the propertied classes of Indian society stands on thinner ground.

Question : India's anti drone capability is in the earliest stages of development.
Critically analyse the statement in the light of recent twin blasts inside the Air Force Station.
[GS Paper III]

Hint: The Tribune
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30 Jun 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT     
Question : “Forest restoration is an important climate mitigation strategy which can lead to biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.” Discuss how India can become a leader in forest restoration.

(GS Mains Paper 3)

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In the last few years, India has witnessed a degradation of its dense forest cover at an unprecedented rate. Despite having strong policy framework and much financial aid forest cover in the country has grown by just 0.56 percent or 3,976 km2 since 2017. It is essential to revisit India’s forest governance to become a leader in Forest restoration.
There is need to redefine ‘forests’ and how to measure them. Rather than rely on satellite mapping of canopy cover or hectares of trees, focus should shift to the measurement of the relative density of a ‘thriving forest’ or an ‘ecosystem’. There is also a need to delineate areas under orchards, bamboo, and palm cultivation (such as coconut) for an exact assessment of carbon stocks of forest. Employing the latest satellite or aerial remote sensing and GIS technologies for real-time mapping of the forest land, would offer an important solution.
There is need for new policy formation to provide an overarching framework and direction for the management and regulation of forests. It should also focus on forest management aimed at curtailing deforestation and land use change. Employing a science-based methodology with a participatory approach will help government agencies determine the right type of tree-based interventions most suitable to certain land use. The Restoration Opportunities Assessment Methodology (ROAM) framework could be adopted at scale for rigorous analysis of spatial, legal, and socio-economic data to plan for the best interventions for forest restoration.
Numerous petitions have been filed with the National Green Tribunal and Supreme Court on the misuse of CAMPA funds and negligent monitoring by the states. The state governments must put in place robust action plans for appropriate fund management, conduct an inventory of interventions, and create transparent information systems for relevant stakeholders. Geo-tagging technology would prove a valuable tool for online recording, monitoring, and checking leakages as well as efficient mapping of forest landscapes.
Role of Local communities is critical when it comes to decide what and how to plant and regenerate degraded lands should be placed in the hands of local communities, who have greater capacity to undertake adaptive management. For example, The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development’s ‘Wadi’ model is an excellent example of community-managed plantations that have delivered significant ecosystem and economic benefits. A performance monitoring system created through a combination of remote sensing and GIS technologies and ground-level verification would be immensely useful to evaluate the impacts.
Although becoming a world leader in forest restoration would be tough target in context of India, but with a long term sustainable approach, strong political will and application of technology can take near to it. 

28 Jun 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : “In order to ensure the free and fair working of democracy, the role of Governor is indispensably crucial.” Examine the role of the Governor in the Indian Political System and also highlight the recent controversies surrounding the office of the Governor.

(GS Mains; Paper 2) 
Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
The governor is the chief executive head of the state. But, like the president, he is a nominal executive head. The governor also acts as an agent of the central government. Therefore, the office of governor has a dual role.
The office of governor of a state is not an employment under the Central government. It is an independent constitutional office and is not under the control of or subordinate to the Central government.
Role and responsibilities of the Governor:
A governor possesses executive, legislative, financial and judicial powers more or less analogous to the President of India. However, he has no diplomatic, military or emergency powers like the president.
The following are the primary responsibilities of the Governor:
  • All executive actions of the government of a state are formally taken in his name.
  • He appoints the chief minister and other ministers.
  • He appoints the advocate general of a state, state election commissioner, chairman and members of the state public service commission.
  • He can summon or prorogue the state legislature and dissolve the state legislative assembly.
  • He recommends imposition of Constitutional Emergency to the President.
  • He gives approval to the introduction of the money bill.
  • He reviews and signs bills that are approved by both the state legislative assembly and council.
  • He can grant pardons, reprieves, respites and remissions of punishment or suspend, remit and commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the state extends.
Issues associated with the office of Governor:
  • Excessive misuse of authority by the centre:  Many examples can be cited which depict the instances of the Governor’s position being abused, usually at the behest of the ruling party at the Centre. 
  • Partisanship because of biased ideology: In several cases, politicians and former bureaucrats identifying with a particular political ideology have been appointed as the Governors by the central government. This goes against the constitutionally mandated neutral seat and has resulted in bias, as appears to have happened in Karnataka and Goa.
  • Staunch supporter of the ruling party at the Centre: The Governor of Rajasthan was charged with the violation of the model code of conduct. His support of the ruling party is against the spirit of non-partisanship that is expected from the person sitting on constitutional posts.
  • Misuse of discretionary powers: Governor’s discretionary powers to invite the leader of the largest party/alliance, post-election, to form the government has often been misused to favour a particular political party.
The following are some suggestions which can be incorporated to ensure the free, fair, impartial and smooth functioning of the office of governor:
  • For the smooth functioning of a democratic government, it is equally important that the governor must act judiciously, impartially and efficiently while exercising his discretion and personal judgment. So, there is a dire need for proper checks and balances to streamline the functioning of this office.
  • Recommendations of Sarkaria commission and Punchhi Commission must be followed and implemented in true spirit.
  • The procedure for appointment of governors should be explicitly laid down and conditions of appointment must also be clearly laid down and it should be ensured that these conditions are fulfilled.
  • There should be a fixed tenure for the governor so that the governor is not under the constant threat of removal by the central government.
  • It is necessary to invest in the office of the Governor with the requisite independence of action and to rid them of the bane of ‘instructions’ from the Central Government.
The flaw lies not with the identity of the individual who occupies the post, but in the design of the Constitution itself. If we want to put an end to the continuous misuse of the Raj Bhavan for partisan political ends in a manner that threatens both federalism and democracy, we have to rethink the role of the Governor in the constitutional scheme.
The role of the governor is indispensable for the successful working of the constitutional democracy. However, there is a strong need for reforms so that the virtue of discharging one’s duty impartially is withheld to ensure a free and fair working of Democracy.

Question : India's Africa policy needs a major revamping. Comment [GS Mains Paper II]

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Question : ‘The key economic indicators show that the Indian agriculture sector has enough resilience.’ In the light of this statement discuss how agriculture can help in reviving the rural economy. [GS Mains Paper III]

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