Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

18 May 2022 gs-mains-paper-3 ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT     
Question : What are the emerging opportunities and threats for efforts to conserve biodiversity in India?

(GS Mains; Paper 3)
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16 May 2022 gs-mains-paper-3 ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT      
Question : Discuss the criteria employed for dispersal of pollutants in marine ecosystems.

(GS Mains; Paper 3)
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13 May 2022 gs-mains-paper-3 ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT      
Question : Describe the principle of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). What are its potential and advantages in India?

(GS Mains; Paper 3)
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21 Mar 2022 gs-mains-paper-3 ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT      
Question : What do you think should be improved in nature conservation systems and biodiversity of natural ecosystems in addition to just increasing financial outlays on nature conservation policies conducted by government agencies and ministries of the environment?

(GS Mains; Paper -3)
Biodiversity Conservation

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22 Oct 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT 
Question : Forests are difficult geographies to regulate as they must meet the competing regulatory requirements of conservation, development, and recognition of forest rights. In this background, debate on the Proposed amendments to the Forest Conservation Act.
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03 Sep 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT 
Question : Equitable cumulative emission targets and not net zero is the key to achieving the Paris Agreement’s temperature goals. Debate.

(GS MAINS PAPER 3)
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26 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT 
Question : What is environmental impact assessment (EIA)?
Do you think that conversion of land for Oil Palm or any other such large scale commercial plantation in India must require an EIA based environment clearance as is mandated for highways, dams or Industries ? Support your answer.


GS MAINS PAPER 3
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25 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT 
Question : What is Integrated River Basin management? What are the challenges and mechanisms to implement IRBM in India?

(GS MAINS - Geography Paper-1/ Environment Paper-3)
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07 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT 
Question :

Discuss the ways in which National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) project is going to minimize the climatic change impacts on agriculture.

(GS MAINS PAPER 3)

Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
Climate change poses complex challenges like multiple abiotic stresses on crops and livestock, shortage of water, land degradation and loss of biodiversity. Apart from these, extreme weather events like Floods, droughts causing shortage of food grains resulting in price rise and inflation affecting poor the most. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to enhance the resilience of Indian Agriculture to climate change. Both application of improved technologies and new policies will contribute to resilience.
In National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Project it is contemplated both to develop climate resilient technologies through short term and long term research, and also demonstrate the existing technologies on farmers’ fields for enhancing the resilience. The scheme attempts to develop and promote climate resilient technologies in agriculture which will address vulnerable areas of the country.

Some of Features of Project:
  • It includes comprehensive field evaluation of new and emerging approaches of crop cultivation like aerobic rice, conservation Agriculture practices etc., for their contribution to reduce the GHG emissions.
  • It gives special emphasis to livestock and fishery sectors including aquaculture by Identification and characterization of adaptive traits in the indigenous resilient breeds
  • It is to enhance resilience in agriculture by demonstrating site specific climate resilient agricultural practices and to adopt these practices by farmers.
  • It promotes in-situ moisture conservation, biomass mulching, residue incorporation instead of burning, brown and green manuring, water harvesting and recycling for supplemental irrigation, improved drainage in flood prone areas, conservation tillage where appropriate, artificial ground water recharge and water saving irrigation methods
  • It promotes drought/temperature tolerant varieties, advancement of planting dates of Rabi crops in areas with terminal heat stress, water saving paddy cultivation methods (SRI, aerobic, direct seeding), frost management in horticulture through fumigation, staggered community nurseries for delayed monsoon, custom hiring centers for timely completion of farm operations, location specific intercropping systems with high sustainable yield index.
  • It includes Institutional interventions either by strengthening the existing ones or initiating new ones relating to community seed bank, fodder bank, commodity groups, custom hiring center, collective marketing group, introduction of weather index based insurance and climate literacy through a village weather station. The program also aims at development of an enabling mechanism at the village level for continued adoption of such practices in a sustainable manner.
  • Experiences of NICRA project are to be disseminated to all concerned development departments for upscaling the interventions across the country. Capacity building on various resilient practices/ technologies, location specific mitigation and adaptation strategies, use of farm machinery, seed bank, fodder bank etc.
With its new approach, the project is expected Enhanced resilience of agricultural production in vulnerable regions of the country.


30 Jun 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT     
Question : “Forest restoration is an important climate mitigation strategy which can lead to biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.” Discuss how India can become a leader in forest restoration.

(GS Mains Paper 3)


 
Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
In the last few years, India has witnessed a degradation of its dense forest cover at an unprecedented rate. Despite having strong policy framework and much financial aid forest cover in the country has grown by just 0.56 percent or 3,976 km2 since 2017. It is essential to revisit India’s forest governance to become a leader in Forest restoration.
There is need to redefine ‘forests’ and how to measure them. Rather than rely on satellite mapping of canopy cover or hectares of trees, focus should shift to the measurement of the relative density of a ‘thriving forest’ or an ‘ecosystem’. There is also a need to delineate areas under orchards, bamboo, and palm cultivation (such as coconut) for an exact assessment of carbon stocks of forest. Employing the latest satellite or aerial remote sensing and GIS technologies for real-time mapping of the forest land, would offer an important solution.
There is need for new policy formation to provide an overarching framework and direction for the management and regulation of forests. It should also focus on forest management aimed at curtailing deforestation and land use change. Employing a science-based methodology with a participatory approach will help government agencies determine the right type of tree-based interventions most suitable to certain land use. The Restoration Opportunities Assessment Methodology (ROAM) framework could be adopted at scale for rigorous analysis of spatial, legal, and socio-economic data to plan for the best interventions for forest restoration.
Numerous petitions have been filed with the National Green Tribunal and Supreme Court on the misuse of CAMPA funds and negligent monitoring by the states. The state governments must put in place robust action plans for appropriate fund management, conduct an inventory of interventions, and create transparent information systems for relevant stakeholders. Geo-tagging technology would prove a valuable tool for online recording, monitoring, and checking leakages as well as efficient mapping of forest landscapes.
Role of Local communities is critical when it comes to decide what and how to plant and regenerate degraded lands should be placed in the hands of local communities, who have greater capacity to undertake adaptive management. For example, The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development’s ‘Wadi’ model is an excellent example of community-managed plantations that have delivered significant ecosystem and economic benefits. A performance monitoring system created through a combination of remote sensing and GIS technologies and ground-level verification would be immensely useful to evaluate the impacts.
Although becoming a world leader in forest restoration would be tough target in context of India, but with a long term sustainable approach, strong political will and application of technology can take near to it. 



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