Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

07 May 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY    
Question : State the basic ideological differences between the moderates and the extremists.

(GS Mains; Paper 1)
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05 May 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question : How did the Permanent Settlement affect the peasantry in Eastern India ?

(GS Mains; Paper 1) 
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21 Apr 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY      
Question : Write a short note on stone sculptures of Indus Valley.

(GS Mains; Paper 1)
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19 Apr 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question : What were the Causes of Non-Cooperation Movement ? Did it achieve its primary goal ? Express your opinion.

(GS Mains; Paper 1)
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18 Apr 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question : Across India, tribal freedom fighters fought against British, thereby contributing to the Indian Independence Movement. Critically Analyze.

(GS Mains; Paper 1)
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12 Apr 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question : Why did Muslim leaders of North India support the Khilafat movement more than their Bombay counterparts?

(GS Mains; Paper 1)
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06 Apr 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY    
Question : Analyse the cultural achievements of Harshavardhana.

(GS Mains; Paper 1)
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05 Apr 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY    
Question : In the context of Indian History, would you accept the ”theory of Drain of Wealth” as a valid concept? Support your answer.

(GS Mains; Paper 1)
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04 Apr 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question : Discuss why Neolithic is considered as a period of cultural revolution.

(GS Mains; Paper 1)
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15 Mar 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY      
Question : It is said that “The Gupta era is often regarded as the high point of Ancient Indian civilization. It was a period of great achievements in art, literature and science and a period of change, as Indian civilization slowly evolved from its ancient form to its more modern manifestation”.  Elaborate.

(GS Mains; Paper-1)
Indian History: Art and Culture
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11 Mar 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY      
Question : Mauryan art represented an important transition in Indian art from use of wood to stone. Discuss in detail about their contribution to art and culture.

(GS Mains; Paper 1)
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17 Feb 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question : Explain Gandhi Ji’s transformation from a small-town lawyer during his early life in South Africa into a skilled political activist and leader of civil resistance in India.

(GS Mains; Paper 1)
Indian History (Modern)
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10 Feb 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY        
Question : Discuss in detail the architectural development of Chaityas in ancient India by quoting some examples.

GS Mains; Paper 1
Indian History (Art & Culture)
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09 Feb 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question : “Commercialization of agriculture in colonial India led to a situation of growth without development.” Do you agree? Support your answer.
 
(GS Mains; Paper 1)
Indian History (Modern)


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30 Jan 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question : How did Nehru confront the problem of free India’s backwardness in Science and Technology ?

(GS Mains; Paper 1)
Indian History (Post-Independence)
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28 Jan 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY    
Question : Would you relate the recurrence of famine in the nineteenth century India to British land revenue administration?


(GS Mains; Paper 1 – Indian History (Modern)
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20 Jan 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY    
Question : How did the latest technologies of that time brought to India by the Turks bring radical changes in society during medieval period? Elaborate.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 1)
Indian History (Art & Culture)
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19 Jan 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question : Who were the prominent Western Fighters for India’s Freedom, who identified so completely with Indian aspirations and fought non-violently for India’s liberation from colonial rule? Enumerate how each of them enriched and enhanced the life of the Indian nation in so many different ways.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 1)
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10 Jan 2022 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question : Analyse the role of social reformers in the upliftment of ‘untouchables’ in the society with reference to British Colonial Era.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 1)
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08 Nov 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY    
Question : What was more responsible for the downfall of the Maratha power – internal strife or British aggression?

(GS MAINS; PAPER 1)
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01 Nov 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question : “It is often not realized that Gandhi's role as a reconciler was not mainly between the Indians and the British. Indeed, in this respect, he often acted as a provocateur”. Comment.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 1)
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04 Oct 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY 
Question : Explain dyarchy introduced under the Act of 1919. Was it successful or a failure.

(GS MAINS PAPER-1)
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24 Sep 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY 
Question : Discuss the ideological background of social legislation in the 19th century.

(GS Mains Paper-I)

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17 Sep 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY 
Question : Small or ginger steps taken in unison with peers and masses often became forerunners of momentous occurrences. The Bardoli Satyagraha is one such episode in India’s National Movement which attempted to mobilize the peasant to bring them into the main stream of anti-colonial struggle. Discuss.

(GS Mains Paper-1)
Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
The Bardoli movement during the colonial rule had a distinct feature that characterized the growth of the social base of the national freedom struggle and at the same time highlighted the role that peasants were ready to play in these struggles. Bardoli Satyagraha was among those struggles that also helped in shaping the path of future peasant struggle in India.
Bardoli satyagraha started to opposes the hike in revenue demand that was made by the British authority despite the occurrences of drought in the region and low agriculture productivity. Peasants of Bardoli were facing various hardships to comply with the demand made by the British authority. In this situation, local peasants mobilized under the leadership of Vallabhbhai Patel. Patel set up 13 chhavanis or workers camps in the taluqa to give an organizational shape to this movement which later become an important feature of Bardoli Satyagraha
This movement brought Bardoli satyagraha Patrika to mobilized public opinions in their favour. The main strength of this movement was the collective action plan of peasants. Every member was supposed to follow the common resolution and if anyone found doing anything against it faced a social boycott. Apart from that special emphasis was placed over the mobilization of women.
Later on, the success of the Bardoli movement inspires other peasant movements to take the route of peaceful struggle and a common action plan to achieve their desired goal. Similarly, it made clear to the British authority about the awakening of the peasant community in India and how this community can no longer bear the unjust and unfair policies offered by the British authority
Hence, Bardoli in many ways helped the peasant community to realize the power of union and how a struggle based on a common method of struggle often led to a successful outcome. Moreover, this movement has also shown the real cause of peasant suffering which was not some localized issue but the very nature of colonialism rule that put the peasant community in a disadvantaged position.


20 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY     
Question :

What do you understand by the ‘Drain of Wealth’? Discuss its implications on India during the British Rule.  
(GS Mains; Paper I)

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The Theory of Drain of Wealth was developed by the Indian nationalist thinkers mainly with a view to analyse the main causes of poverty in India. The nationalist’s definition of the drain was the idea of transfer of wealth and commodities from India to England without the former getting back any economic, commercial or material returns. Hence the Drain in the Indian conception inevitably took the form of an excess of export over import. The Drain of Wealth was referred to as typically “a phenomenon of the colonial rule.” The transfer of resources from India to England either without getting anything in return or getting only a disproportionately small part of such a transfer of resources has come to be described as the Drain of India’s resources. The person to draw pointed attention to this drain of resources from India to England was Dababhai Naoroji in his book the Poverty and Un-British Rule in India. Dadabhai Naoroji made an attempt, in his book, to explain the causes of the drain, to measure the amount of the drain flowing from India to England, and to trace the consequences of such drain. Dadabhai Naoroji tried to prove that the prevailing mass poverty in India was the direct consequence, among other reasons, for the drain of resources from India to England. 
According to Dadabhai Naoroji, the following forms of drain can be identified: 
  • Remittances to England by Europeans for the support of families and education of children-a feature of the colonial system of government. 
  • Remittances of savings by the employees of the company, since most employs preferred to invest at home.
  • Remittances for purchase of British goods for the consumption of British employees as well as purchase by them of British goods in India.
  • Government purchase of store manufacture in Britain. 
  • Interest charges on public debt held in Britain (excluding interest payments on railway loans and debts incurred for productive works.) 
In addition, the Government of India had to make huge payments to people in England on account of political, administrative and commercial connections established between India and England. These commitments were called Home Charges. The home charges consisted of many items such as Interest in public debt raised in England at comparatively higher rates; Annuities on account of railway and irrigation work; Payment in connection with civil departments where Englishmen were employed; India office expenses including pensions to retired officials who had worked in India or who worked for India in England and retired there, pensions to army and naval personnel, and their furlough allowances.
The factors which resulted in the external drain were: - Firstly, India is governed was a foreign government. Secondly, India did not invite immigrants, which bring labour and capital for economic growth. Thirdly, India paid for Britain’s civil administration and occupational army. Fourthly, India bore the burden of empire building both in and outside of its borders. Fifthly, opening the country to free trade was actually a way to exploit India by offering highly paid jobs to foreign personnel. Lastly, the principal income earners would buy outside of India or leave with the money as they were mostly foreign personnel. 
Till the Battle of Plassey i.e., 1757, the European traders imported bullion into India in return of the export of the Indian cotton and silk goods which had a flourishing market in the west. But the situation was soon reversed after the conquest of Bengal after the Battle of Plassey by the English East India Company, when the company not only stopped importing bullion into India, but began to purchase goods from the surplus revenues of Bengal and the profits made from the duty-free inland trade. This was the beginning of the plunder of Bengal and by the end of the 18th century the whole country became a playground of plunder by the British Government. India had to pay a very heavy price for two hundred years of colonial rule. The continuous plunder of India’s raw materials, resources and wealth made Britain enrich itself at the cost of India’s growing poverty. Thus, the economic exploitation of India at the hand of the colonial government was so massive the it left India with ‘poverty amidst plenty’.


02 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-1 INDIAN HISTORY    
Question : Do you agree with the statement that ‘the withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement in 1922 was the proof of Mahatma Gandhi’s concern for the propertied classes of Indian Society?

(GS Mains; Paper I)

 
Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
To withdraw the non-cooperative movement was condemned, but to see it as proof of the Mahatma Gandhi’s concern for the propertied classes of Indian society is one of the possibility among the factors that led to the decision to withdraw. At the present stage of research, it is not possible to argue this position with a great force. 
In response to the violence at Chauri Chaura, Gandhiji withdrew the movement. It is argued that Gandhiji did not withdraw the movement simply because of his belief in the necessity of nonviolence, rather, he withdrew it because the action at Chauri Chaura was a symbol and an indication of the growing militancy of the Indian masses, of their growing radicalization, of their willingness to launch an attack on the status quo of property relations. Frightened by this radical possibility and by the prospect of the movement going out of his hands and moving into the hands of radical forces, and in order to protect the interests of landlords and capitalists who would inevitably be at the receiving end of this violence, Gandhiji cried halt to the movement. 
Bardoli resolution, the resolution of the Congress Working Committee of 12 February 1922 while announcing the withdrawal, asked the peasants to pay taxes and tenants to pay rents is believed to be supportive proof. This is considered as the real though hidden motive behind the historic decision of February 1922. 
But the reality is that the crowd at Chauri Chaura had not demonstrated any intention of attacking landlords or overturning the structure of property relations, they were merely angered by the overbearing behavior of policemen and vented their wrath by attacking them. Peasant unrest in most of Avadh and Malabar had died out long before this time, and the Eka movement that was on in some of the rural areas of Avadh showed no signs of wanting to abolish the zamindari system; it only wanted zamindars to stop ‘illegal’ cesses and arbitrary rent enhancements. In fact, one of the items of the oath that was taken by peasants who joined the Eka movement was that they would ‘pay rent regularly at Kharif and Rabi.” The no-tax movement in Guntur was very much within the framework of the Non-Cooperation Movement; it was directed against the government and remained totally peaceful. Moreover, it was already on the decline before February 1922. It is difficult to discern where the threat from radical tendencies is actually located. That the Bardoli resolution which announced the withdrawal also contained clauses which asked peasants to pay up taxes and tenants to pay up rents, and assured zamindars that the Congress had no intention of depriving them of their rights, is also no proof of hidden motives. The Congress had at no stage during the movement sanctioned non-payment of rent or questioned the rights of zamindars; the resolution was merely a reiteration of its position on this issue. Non-payment of taxes was obviously to cease if the movement as a whole was being withdrawn.
Gandhiji had repeatedly warned that he did not even want any non-violent movement in any other part of the country while he was conducting mass civil disobedience in Bardoli. In a situation of mass ferment and activity, the movement might easily take a violent turn, either due to its own volatile nature or because of provocation by the authorities concerned (as had actually happened in Bombay in November 1921 and later in Chauri Chaura); also if violence occurred anywhere it could easily be made the excuse by the Government to launch a massive attack on the movement as a whole. The Government could always cite the actual violence in one part as proof of the likelihood of violence in another part of the country, and thus justify its repression. This would upset the whole strategy of nonviolent civil disobedience which was based on the principle that the forces of repression would always stand exposed since they would be using armed force against peaceful civil resisters. 
There are also some indications that Gandhiji’s decision may have been prompted by the fact that in many parts of the country, by the second half of 1921, the movement had shown clear signs of being on the ebb. Students had started drifting back to schools and colleges, lawyers and litigants to law courts, the commercial classes showed signs of weariness and worry at the accumulating stocks of foreign cloth, attendance at meetings and rallies had dwindled, both in the urban and rural areas. Thus, the mass enthusiasm that was evident all over the country in the first part of 1921 had, perhaps, receded. 
Therefore, argument that the withdrawal of the movement was the proof of Mahatma Gandhi’s concern for the propertied classes of Indian society stands on thinner ground.



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