Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

27 Jun 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY      
Question :
Q. Discuss the key provisions of anti-defection law? Why is it sometimes dubbed as toothless tiger? Suggest some measures to strengthen it?

Decode the Question:
  • Start with expressing the key provisions of the anti-defection law.
  • Point out main issues associated with this law by citing some recent developments.
  • Suggest some measures to strengthen this law.
  • Conclude with a suitable note.
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Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
Defection is defined as a “conscious abandonment of allegiance or duty”. The 52nd Amendment Act of 1985 provided for the disqualification of the members of Parliament and the state legislatures on the ground of defection from one political party to another. It is often referred to as the ‘anti-defection law’.
The purpose of the anti-defection law was to bring stability to governments by discouraging legislators from changing parties.
The Tenth Schedule contains the following provisions with respect to the disqualification of members of Parliament and the state legislatures on the ground of defection:
  • Members of Political Parties: when a legislator elected on the ticket of one political party “voluntarily gives up” membership of that party or vote in the legislature against the party’s wishes, he becomes disqualified for being a member of the House.
  • Independent Members: An independent member of a House becomes disqualified to remain a member of the House if he joins any political party after such election.
  • Nominated Members: In their case, the law specifies that they can join a political party within six months of being appointed to the House, and not after such time.
  • The above disqualification on the ground of defection is not applicable in the following two cases: 
  • If two-thirds of the strength of a party should agree for a ‘merger’ then it will not be counted as a defection.
  • If a member, after being elected as the presiding officer of the House.
91st Amendment Act of 2003 deleted the provisions regarding protection granted to legislators in cases of a split in the party under the Tenth Schedule.
Though the anti-defection law has been hailed as a bold step towards cleansing our political life and started as a new epoch in the political life of the country, it has revealed many lacunae in its operation and failed to prevent defections in toto. But the following issues associate it with the tag of toothless tiger.
 
Issues with Anti-defection law:
  • Dissent Vs Defection: It does not make a differentiation between dissent and defection. It curbs the legislator’s right to dissent and freedom of conscience. Thus, ‘it clearly puts party bossism on a pedestal and sanctions tyranny of the party in the name of the party discipline’. It violates the principle of representative democracy.
  • Merger Issue: it banned only retail defections and legalised wholesale defections. If two-thirds of the strength of a party should agree for a ‘merger’ then it will not be counted as a defection. In 2019 in Goa, 10 of the 15 Congress MLAs merged their legislature party with the BJP. In the same year, in Rajasthan, six BSP MLAs merged their party with the Congress, and in Sikkim, 10 of the 15 MLAs of the Sikkim Democratic Front joined the BJP. These are against the people’s political mandate and defeat the purpose of anti-defection.
  • Independent members vs nominated member issue: Its discrimination between an independent member and a nominated member is illogical. If the former joins a party, he is disqualified while the latter is allowed to do the same.
  • Issues associated with the presiding officer: Its vesting of decision-making authority in the presiding officer is criticised on two grounds. Firstly, he may not exercise this authority in an impartial and objective manner due to political exigencies. Secondly, he lacks the legal knowledge and experience to adjudicate upon the cases. 
  • No prescribed time- period for decision: The law does not define a time period within which disqualification proceedings against a legislator ought to be decided. With the role of the Speaker of the House getting more and more political by virtue of this law, disqualifications were either decided immediately or kept pending indefinitely depending on which of the two suited the political party that the Speaker was earlier affiliated with. Additionally, with the Courts having no jurisdiction over disqualification proceedings, judicial remedy could be sought only against the decision of the Speaker or on his inaction in deciding the disqualification proceedings. This made the proceedings under the Tenth Schedule useless to a large extent and did not discourage legislators from jumping ship. In 2020 however, the Supreme Court in an order stated that Speakers ought to decide on the disqualification proceedings pending before them within a “reasonable time”.
  • Split Issue: Though 91st Amendment Act of 2003 deleted the provisions regarding protection granted to legislators in cases of a split in the party under the Tenth Schedule. Opposition MLAs in states, like Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, have broken away in small groups gradually to join the ruling party. In some of these cases, more than 2/3rd of the opposition has defected to the ruling party. The ambiguity over such a split is not clear if they will still face disqualification if the Presiding Officer makes a decision after more than 2/3rd of the opposition has defected to the ruling party.
  • Practice of horse trading: Parties have also been able to use the anti-defection law to their advantage. Parties often have to sequester MLAs in resorts to prevent them from changing their allegiance or getting poached by a rival party or an opposing faction of their party. Recent examples are Rajasthan (2020), Maharashtra (2019), Karnataka (2019 and 2018), and Tamil Nadu (2017). Recent crisis of Maharashtra (2022) has also raised questions about anti-defection law.
  • No bar on outside activities: It does not provide for the expulsion of a legislator from his party for his activities outside the legislature.
Suggestions to strengthen the law:
  • The President and Governors should hear defection petitions. 
  • It must apply only to save governments in no-confidence motions. Restricting the scope of law can shield the detrimental effect of the anti-defection law on representative democracy.
  • Parliament should set up an independent tribunal headed by a retired judge of the higher judiciary to decide defection cases swiftly and impartially.
  • Strengthening Intra-Party Democracy is a vital step to strengthen this law.
  • Bringing political parties under the purview of RTI can be a right step.
In a Judgement, Justice NV Ramana rightly pointed out: "political parties are indulging in horse trading & corrupt practices due to which citizens are denied of stable governments. In these circumstances, the Parliament is required to re-consider strengthening certain aspects of the Tenth Schedule so that such undemocratic practices are discouraged". For healthy representative democracy and free and fair elections, the strong anti-defection law is a need of the hour.
 
Reference: India Today    Indian Express


09 May 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY     
Question : The 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts fail to free Local Governments from the clutches of State Governments. Examine.

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
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28 Apr 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY      
Question : Discuss the present status of the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of India.

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
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13 Apr 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : The instances of recent past shows that ‘the credibility of State Public Service Commissions has declined.’ Comment. 

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
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17 Mar 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY       
Question : Janani Suraksha Yojna (JSY) is a safe motherhood intervention under the National Health Mission. Discuss its role in promoting institutional delivery among poor pregnant women.

(GS Mains; Paper - 2)
Indian Polity, Constitution and Governance: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections

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16 Mar 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY     
Question : With a view to restoring the faith of the public in the democracy of India and its processes, many electoral reforms have been made from time to time. Examine the need for such electoral reforms with reference to various committees. 

(GS Mains; Paper - 2)
Indian Constitution and Polity: Electoral Reforms

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10 Mar 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : What is the core responsibility of the Finance Commission of India? What are the new challenges before the Finance Commission in the process of the evolution of our federal polity? Discuss.

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
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07 Mar 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : How ‘Indian Constitution’ is rooted in ‘Buddhist Philosophy’ even in the contemporary times? Elaborate.

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
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26 Feb 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY      
Question : India should have simultaneous LS and Assembly polls once every five years because being in perpetual election mode affects governance and policy-making. Comment.

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
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23 Feb 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY       
Question : With regard to ‘Fundamental Duties’, what is your opinion: “real rights are a result of [the] performance of duty” OR “real duties are the result of the fulfilment of rights”? Support your answer.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)
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14 Feb 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : Throw light on “Separation of powers” in the American Constitution.

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
Comparison of the Indian Constitutional Scheme with that of other Countries
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11 Feb 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY      
Question : Throw light on the judicial expansion of the Right to life under the Indian Constitution.

(GS Mains; Paper 2 – Indian Polity and Constitution) 
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07 Feb 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : ‘The Public Policies in general suffer from implementation lag’. Analyse. 

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
Government Policies and Intervention
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29 Jan 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : Explain the factors that have led to the decline of legislature in modern times.  

(GS Mains; Paper 2 – Indian Polity and Constitution)

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05 Jan 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY     
Question : Analyse the Draft National Air Sports Policy and suggests some measures to make India one of the top air sports nations in the world.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)

 
 
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02 Jan 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY     
Question : How do you view the CJI’s worry about how news and views are being mixed together into a dangerous cocktail today, as also about the “recent trend to sermonise about judgments, and villainise judges”? Express your opinion.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)

 
 
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01 Jan 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY     
Question : Should a National Court of Appeals, With Zonal Benches, be set up to ease the burden & save the time of the Supreme Court? comment.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)

 
 
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19 Dec 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : What do you mean by Pressure Group? Highlight the distinction between interest groups and the pressure groups.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)

 
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12 Dec 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY      
Question : Distinguish between motion of confidence and motion of no-confidence.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)
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05 Dec 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : Critically evaluate the role of bureaucracy in effecting socio-economic changes in India.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)

 
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29 Nov 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY     
Question : “Local Government is an index of democracy.” Explain.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)

 
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16 Nov 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : Comptroller and Auditor General of India has unfettered powers to examine the entire Government spending. Critically examine the statement.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)
 
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14 Nov 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : How has the proliferation of political parties affected the functioning of democracy in India?

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)

 
 
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02 Nov 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : Do you agree that Centre-State financial relations are indicative of a strong centre in a federation? Give your opinion.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)
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25 Oct 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY     
Question : The Centre has told the Supreme Court that NGOs have no fundamental right to receive “unbridled foreign contributions” without regulations. Critically analyse the statement.  How such amendments can affect the workings of NGOs?
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23 Oct 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : While Pakistan is retained in the ‘Grey list’ yet again by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), Jordan, Mali and Turkey are the new inclusions. Do you think FATF’s increased monitoring and actions are in the right direction to combat terrorism. Comment.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)
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19 Oct 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : Elimination of tax havens is a human rights issue whose pursuit cannot merely be matters of state and polity. Comment in the light of recent developments.
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18 Oct 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : The low rank on the Global Hunger Index should push India to look again at its policies and interventions. Discuss.

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)
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15 Oct 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : How ‘GatiShakti’ is a National Master Plan for multi-modal connectivity? Elaborate.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)
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14 Oct 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : What does multidimensional poverty measure and how is it different from one-dimensional approach? What does the UNDP’s Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2021 released recently say about the level of poverty across India’s castes and social groups and the conditions in which India’s poor live?   

(GS Paper-2; Poverty and Hunger)
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12 Oct 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : Even after 15 years of the landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India mandating country-wide police reform not much has changed in the way policing is done in India.
Is it because of inadequate appreciation of the importance of good policing for the health of a vibrant democratic society or is it sheer apathy? Give your opinion and suggest some ways so that a clear and cogent process laid down by the Supreme Court for creating citizen-centric police is implemented in true earnestness.

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)

 
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05 Oct 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : Which are the ground on which the central Government has claimed that the PM CARES Fund is not a ‘public authority’? Do you think that such a declaration may be correct in letter but Not in spirit?  Substantiate your opinion.

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)
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03 Oct 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : Discuss the Changes in the Functioning of the federal system in India?

(GS MAINS PAPER-2)
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30 Sep 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : Why ‘Ayushman Bharat Digital Health Mission’, the Government of India’s new initiative has the potential to revolutionise patient care?

(Issues relating to Health, GS MAINS; PAPER-2)






 
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18 Sep 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : Discuss the nature and extent of Legislative and Judicial Control over Public Administration in India.

(Indian Polity and Governance; GS Mains Paper-2)
Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
The parliamentary system of government prevalent in India is based on the principle of collective responsibility. The legislative control is indirect in administration in India through ministers. Judicial control is exercised by courts over administrative acts.
Legislative control over public administration
Parliament exercises control over administration by following way
  1. General Control - general control over the policies and actions of the government through questions, discussions, sessions, motions and resolutions. Parliament through the question hour, zero hour, calling attention motion, no-confidence motion, adjournment motion and control over delegated legislation exercises its control over administration in India.
  2. Financial Control - Parliament controls the revenue and expenditure of the government through the enactment of the budget. it is the ultimate authority to sanction the raising and spending of government funds.
  3. Other - CAG audit the account of government behalf of the parliament and presents its report in the parliament annually. On the basis of CAG report public accounts committee (PAC) presents its audit report to the other parliamentary committee like committee on assurance, committee on subordinate legislation also helps in legislative control over administration.
Although legislative control over public administration in India seems vast yet it's more theoretical than practical .in reality the control is not as effective as it ought to be because of time, expertise and technical constraints of parliament.
Judicial control over Public Administration
Judicial control over public administration is exercised by the courts in India. Its aim is to protect the rights and liberties of citizens by ensuring the legality of administrative acts.
Judiciary exercises its control not in normal situations but in certain situations when administration works beyond its authority, misinterpret the authority or don’t follow the procedure established by law.
In such conditions, the judiciary uses its control through such methods as judicial review (examine the legality and constitutionality of administrative acts), suits against government and suits against a public officer. In this way, the judiciary controls the public administration in India.
However, the judiciary has limited suo-moto power and does post-mortem control. All acts are not subject to judicial control. Judicial power is very slow and cumbersome. Due to the rise in State works it's impossible for the judiciary to review each law and administrative act.
Hence, the legislature and judiciary play significant roles in the control of public administration in India.


08 Sep 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : Although it is argued that our arrangements of fiscal federalism are not the best practice still they are not necessarily skewed against states as is commonly believed. Do you agree? support your answer.

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)
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28 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : What do you mean by a shift in the working of a civil servant from 'Rule to Role’? How an administrative reform like this is going to ensure ' Ease of Living' to its citizens? Discuss.

GS Mains Paper-2 (Role of Civil Services/ Governance)
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21 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

The decline in the functioning of India’s Parliament and state assemblies as well is caused by one primary reason - the lack of impartiality of the Speaker.

Do you agree? Substantiate your answer. Give some suggestions to improve the functioning of the above mentioned legislative institutions.

 

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)

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16 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

What do you mean by Self-Help Groups (SHG) ? Discuss their role amidst the COVID19 pandemic. How various Self-Help Groups have strengthened India’s fight against the virus through multiple initiatives?

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)

 

Hint: ATMANIRBHAR NARISHAKTI

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13 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

What is the significance of the Coalition on Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) at this crucial juncture as the world focuses on global resilience and recovery, following the collective global experience of managing the ravages of the pandemic.

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)

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12 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

"A sense of accommodation by the treasury benches and a sense of responsibility by the Opposition benches is the balance essential for the smooth running of Parliament." Comment.
Suggest some ways  to avoid  parliamentary disruptions and effective functioning of the Parliament.

 

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)

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01 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

Discuss the issue of ‘Parliamentary Disruption’ in India. How is it impacting India’s democratic legislative process? [GS Mains Paper II]

Hint:

India Today
Live Mint

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23 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

“The reforms in cooperative sector should not be at the cost of federal principles.” Discuss this statement in the context of the Supreme Court’s recent verdict on the 97th Constitution amendment.

[GS Mains Paper 2]

Hint: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/limits-of-cooperation-the-hindu-editorial-on-reforms-in-cooperative-sector/article35478339.ece

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16 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

“Special laws like the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act are needed to meet the challenges that emerge from violence; however their application requires the constant assessment.” Comment

[GS Mains Paper II]

Hint: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/interference-an-investigating-officer-can-do-without/article35352240.ece

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13 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY   
Question :

“Article 15 (1) of the Indian Constitution prohibits the state from discrimination against individuals on the basis of certain protected characteristics but it does not bar private individuals or institutions from doing what the state is not permitted to.” Elaborate.

[GS Mains Paper II]

Hint: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/a-kerala-model-for-an-anti-discrimination-law/article35270240.ece
https://www.financialexpress.com/india-news/what-is-article-15-constitutional-provision-at-the-heart-of-a-brewing-controversy/1618324/

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12 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

Some political experts have questioned the need for carving out the cooperative ministry since there was already a department of cooperation. Do you think the move of creating a separate ministry has any administrative significance or it is just a political move?

[GS Mains Paper II]

Hint: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/cooperative-spirit-the-hindu-editorial-on-the-new-union-ministry-of-cooperation/article35270173.ece
https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-a-cooperation-ministry-7395784/

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10 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY     
Question :

“A right delayed is a right denied.” In the backdrop of this statement critically analyse the pendency of cases in Indian courts.

(GS Mains Paper II)

Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
‘Justice delayed is justice denied’ is a legal maxim meaning that if a legal remedy is available for a party that has suffered some injury, but is not forthcoming promptly, it is effectively the same as having no remedy at all.
This principle is the basis for the right to a speedy trial and similar rights which are meant to expedite the legal system because it is unfair for the victim to have to sustain the injury with little hope for resolution.
The following are the factors which are arguably responsible behind the delay in justice:
  • Corruption: Widespread corruption, particularly in lower judiciary, often results in higher pendency of cases in the courts. The corrupt judges may deliberately don’t announce their judgment or grant unfair adjournments to the party they favour. There may be personal bias or belief to sustain the judgment.
  • Continuous Vacancies: There are persisting vacancies against the sanctioned strengths of courts and in the worst performing states those vacancies have exceeded by the substantial amount of percentage.
  • Abysmal state of subordinate judiciary: Apparently, district courts in our country are suffering owing to the inadequate infrastructure and dismal working conditions.
  • Government, the Biggest Litigant:  Poorly drafted orders have resulted in contested tax revenues equal to 4.7 per cent of the GDP and it is rising.
  • Inadequate budgetary allocation: The budget allocated to the judiciary is between 0.08 and 0.09 per cent of the GDP. Only four countries — Japan, Norway, Australia and Iceland have a lesser budget allocation; but they do not have problems of pendency like India.
The following are the steps that can be taken to improve the prevailing situation of the judicial system:
  • Augmentation of the strength of Judicial Service: One of the effective solutions can be to substantially increase the strength of the judicial services by appointing more judges at the subordinate level.
  • An optimum level of budgeting: Various appointments and the necessary infrastructure require the funds and this need can be met with the adequate Level of budgeting.
  • Correcting Historical Inequalities: Reforms in Judiciary should also encompass addressing social inequalities within the judiciary. Women judges, and judges from historically-marginalised castes and classes must finally be given a fair share of seats at the table.
The recommendations of the Fifteenth Finance Commission and the India Justice Report 2020 have raised the issue and suggested ways to earmark and deploy funds. Courts are sitting on a pendency bomb and it has never been more urgent to strengthen the subordinate judiciary.
So, purse strings must be loosened and necessary policy decisions must be effectuated rapidly at both Centre and state levels, if access to justice is to be meaningful in the years to come.


28 Jun 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
Question : “In order to ensure the free and fair working of democracy, the role of Governor is indispensably crucial.” Examine the role of the Governor in the Indian Political System and also highlight the recent controversies surrounding the office of the Governor.

(GS Mains; Paper 2) 
Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
The governor is the chief executive head of the state. But, like the president, he is a nominal executive head. The governor also acts as an agent of the central government. Therefore, the office of governor has a dual role.
The office of governor of a state is not an employment under the Central government. It is an independent constitutional office and is not under the control of or subordinate to the Central government.
Role and responsibilities of the Governor:
A governor possesses executive, legislative, financial and judicial powers more or less analogous to the President of India. However, he has no diplomatic, military or emergency powers like the president.
The following are the primary responsibilities of the Governor:
  • All executive actions of the government of a state are formally taken in his name.
  • He appoints the chief minister and other ministers.
  • He appoints the advocate general of a state, state election commissioner, chairman and members of the state public service commission.
  • He can summon or prorogue the state legislature and dissolve the state legislative assembly.
  • He recommends imposition of Constitutional Emergency to the President.
  • He gives approval to the introduction of the money bill.
  • He reviews and signs bills that are approved by both the state legislative assembly and council.
  • He can grant pardons, reprieves, respites and remissions of punishment or suspend, remit and commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the state extends.
Issues associated with the office of Governor:
  • Excessive misuse of authority by the centre:  Many examples can be cited which depict the instances of the Governor’s position being abused, usually at the behest of the ruling party at the Centre. 
  • Partisanship because of biased ideology: In several cases, politicians and former bureaucrats identifying with a particular political ideology have been appointed as the Governors by the central government. This goes against the constitutionally mandated neutral seat and has resulted in bias, as appears to have happened in Karnataka and Goa.
  • Staunch supporter of the ruling party at the Centre: The Governor of Rajasthan was charged with the violation of the model code of conduct. His support of the ruling party is against the spirit of non-partisanship that is expected from the person sitting on constitutional posts.
  • Misuse of discretionary powers: Governor’s discretionary powers to invite the leader of the largest party/alliance, post-election, to form the government has often been misused to favour a particular political party.
The following are some suggestions which can be incorporated to ensure the free, fair, impartial and smooth functioning of the office of governor:
  • For the smooth functioning of a democratic government, it is equally important that the governor must act judiciously, impartially and efficiently while exercising his discretion and personal judgment. So, there is a dire need for proper checks and balances to streamline the functioning of this office.
  • Recommendations of Sarkaria commission and Punchhi Commission must be followed and implemented in true spirit.
  • The procedure for appointment of governors should be explicitly laid down and conditions of appointment must also be clearly laid down and it should be ensured that these conditions are fulfilled.
  • There should be a fixed tenure for the governor so that the governor is not under the constant threat of removal by the central government.
  • It is necessary to invest in the office of the Governor with the requisite independence of action and to rid them of the bane of ‘instructions’ from the Central Government.
The flaw lies not with the identity of the individual who occupies the post, but in the design of the Constitution itself. If we want to put an end to the continuous misuse of the Raj Bhavan for partisan political ends in a manner that threatens both federalism and democracy, we have to rethink the role of the Governor in the constitutional scheme.
The role of the governor is indispensable for the successful working of the constitutional democracy. However, there is a strong need for reforms so that the virtue of discharging one’s duty impartially is withheld to ensure a free and fair working of Democracy.


21 Jun 2021 INDIAN POLITY 
Question : In the context of Indian polity, shed some light on the ever-changing character of federalism and also examine the prevailing trends in the centre-state relations. [GS Paper 2]

Hint: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/adverse-changes-federalism-imperilled/article34711388.ece
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/the-forms-of-federalism-in-india/article28977671.ece
https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/nationalism-and-the-crisis-of-federalism/article32623644.ece
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15 Jun 2021 INDIAN POLITY 
Question :

Hint: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-covid-situation-second-wave-suprem-court-modi-govt-7359183/

 
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09 Jun 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY     
Question :
Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
It can't be denied that, in India LGBT citizens still face certain social and legal difficulties not experienced by non-LGBT persons. Notably, the country has repealed its colonial-era laws that directly discriminated against homosexual and transgender identities.
In fact, the Indian judiciary explicitly interpreted Article 15 of the Constitution to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. 
In 2018, in the landmark decision of Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India, the Supreme Court of India decriminalised consensual homosexual intercourse by reading down Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code and excluding consensual homosexual sex between adults from its ambit. But the stringent legal protection has not been provided to LGBTQ community yet.
The following are the steps that can be taken to protect the rights and improve the situation of LGBTQ community:
  • The central and state governments must pass orders and guidelines on executing the Supreme Court verdict.
  • Government officials and the police should be trained and taught to behave respectfully with sexual minorities.
  • There is a dire need to sensitise police who often pass abusive remarks over LGBT community members.
  • The Alternative Law Forum is pushing the government to include chapters related to LGBTQ in school and college curricula.
  • There should be a separate LGBTQ welfare department under the social welfare department. Currently, the Women and Child Welfare Department handles issues related to the transgender community.
Right now, there is a strong need for an anti-discrimination law that can empower them to live a productive and meaningful life and place the onus of change on state and society and not on the individual. Government bodies, officials and police need to be sensitised to prevent the sexual harassment and exploitation of LGBTQ community.


05 Jun 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INDIAN POLITY    
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Indisputably, the two consecutive waves of COVID-19 and Mucormycosis left us absolutely shattered. Multiple bruises have been inflicted on us. But, it is our rural India which is struggling and reeling the most owing to the on-going menace of the pandemic.
The key role of health-care facilities in the rural areas is to provide regular and comprehensive health-care needs guided by the WHO’s principle of Universal Health Coverage, “ensuring that all people have access to needed health services of sufficient quality to be effective while also ensuring that the use of these services does not expose the user the financial hardship”.
The second wave of the novel coronavirus pandemic has exposed the inadequate and poor health infrastructure in the rural areas.
The Following are the reasons behind the abysmal situation of rural health infrastructure:
  • 29,337 primary health centres (PHCs) are required in the rural areas of the country; India has 25,743, a shortfall of 3,594 units. This means that we have one PHC for 25 villages in India. This needs to be revisited.
  • Availability of only 5,624 community health centres (CHCs) against the requirement of 7,322
  • There is a shortfall of 81.8% specialists at CHCs as compared to the requirement for existing CHCs.
  • As in the Human Development Report 2020, India has eight hospital beds for a population of 10,000 people, while in China; it has 40 beds for the same number of people.
  • The following are the steps that can be taken to address the critical gaps in rural health infrastructure:
  • Creation of the chain of SHCs, PHCs and CHCs: It can very well take care of the multiple health needs of our people. They should have the health data of people in their respective areas.
  • Regular health camps: It will help us identify those on the verge of developing tuberculosis, hypertension, diabetes or any diseases likely to be caused because of their socio and economic conditions.
  • A CHC or referral centre equipped with specialists will do wonders if made to work efficiently.
  • Every CHC is supposed to have ‘at least 30 beds for indoor patients, operation theatre, labour room, X-ray machine, pathological laboratory, and standby generator’ and other wherewithal.
Health is a State subject, but all those living in the rural areas are not only the responsibility of the States or the Centre but also a collective responsibility. All stakeholders must revisit and refurbish our health infrastructure in the rural areas and build them in a better manner. As more than 65% of the population resides in the rural areas, we cannot ignore their health needs.
We must remember that no one will survive unless all of us survive. As Bertrand Russell has put it, “It’s co-existence or no existence.”



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