Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

02 Jul 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS       
Question : Q. What is Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment (PGII)? How does it impact assertive China?

Decode the Question:
  • Start with the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and connect it with the PGII .
  • Discuss the Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment (PGII) and highlight the Four priority pillars for All PGII projects .
  • Draw a comparison between BRI and PGII by establishing that PGII is a counter move to BRI
  • Provide a suitable conclusion.


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Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
The West has been skeptical of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), since it was launched in 2013 by China, as it was considered to be part of China’s larger strategy to increase geopolitical influence in Asia and other developing countries.
The U.S., along with G7 partners the U.K., Japan, France, Canada, Germany, Italy, and the European Union (EU), had in 2021 announced the launch of the Build Back Better World (B3W) with the aim of narrowing the $40 trillion infrastructure gap in the developing world. Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment (PGII) is therefore, a relaunch of USA’s B3W plan.
USA along with his G7 allies unveiled the ambitious PGII, announcing the collective mobilisation of $600 billion by 2027 to deliver game-changing and transparent infrastructure projects to developing and middle-income countries.
The PGII is being seen as the G7’s counter to China’s multi-trillion-dollar Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) to build connectivity, infrastructure, and trade projects in Asia, Europe, Africa, and Latin America.
PGII is a values-driven, high-impact, and transparent infrastructure partnership to meet the enormous infrastructure needs of low and middle-income countries and support the United States’ and its allies’ economic and national security interests.

Four priority pillars for All PGII projects:
  • Tackling the climate crisis and ensuring global energy security: G7 grouping aims to tackle the climate crisis and ensure global energy security through clean energy supply chains.
  • Bolstering digital information and ICT networks: the projects will focus on bolstering digital information and communications technology (ICT) networks facilitating technologies such as 5G and 6G internet connectivity and cybersecurity.
  • Promoting gender equality and equity: the projects aim to advance gender equality and equity
  • To build and upgrade the global health infrastructure: The U.S International Development Finance Corporation (DFC), along with the G7 nations and the EU are disbursing a $3.3 million technical assistance grant to build a vaccine facility in Senegal, having a potential yearly capacity of manufacturing millions of doses of COVID-19 and other vaccines. The European Commission’s Global Gateway initiative is also undertaking projects supporting the PGII such as mRNA vaccine plants in Latin America and a fibre-optic cable linking Europe to Latin America among others.
PGII’s counter plan for BRI:
Parameters BRI PGII
Objective It was started to revive connectivity, trade, and infrastructure along what was China’s ancient Silk Road. China had announced a two-pronged approach of building a Silk Road Economic Belt on Land and a maritime 21st century Silk Road. The project initially aimed to strengthen connectivity with Southeast Asia but later expanded to South and Central Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America, to break the bottleneck in Asian connectivity. It has specifically touted the PGII as a values-based plan to help underfunded low and middle-income countries meet their infrastructure needs.
Projects China has built large coal-fired plants under BRI along with solar, hydro, and wind energy projects. PGII has laid focus on climate action and clean energy.
Funding China’s BRI is majorly state-funded. Under the PGII, large private capital will be mobilised.
Transparency The BRI has faced criticism for making countries sign confidential tenders for extending massive loans, leaving countries indebted to China. For instance, after the BRI’s flagship $62 billion China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, Pakistan owes Beijing a large proportion of its foreign debt. G7 leaders emphasised ‘transparency’ as the cornerstone of PGII projects.
Loan vs Grants China builds BRI’s projects by extending large, low-interest loans to countries that have to usually be paid over 10 years. There have been cases of debt-saddled countries failing to repay on time. Sri Lanka, for instance, had to cede its key Hambantota Port on a 99-year lease to China. PGII aims to build projects through grants and investments.
Role of India India had opted out of China’s BRI, being wary of Beijing’s aim to increase its influence in the Indian Ocean Region by roping in Pakistan as a major BRI recipient. In India, the U.S. DFC will invest up to $30 million in Omnivore Agritech and Climate Sustainability Fund 3, an impact venture capital fund that invests in entrepreneurs building the future of agriculture, food systems, climate, and rural economy in India.
By these critical parameters, PGII is seen as the G7’s counter to China’s multi-trillion-dollar Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) to build connectivity, infrastructure, and trade projects in Asia, Europe, Africa, and Latin America.
Infrastructure is critical to driving a society’s productivity and prosperity. When done well, infrastructure connects workers to good jobs; allows businesses to grow and thrive; facilitates the delivery of vital services; creates opportunities for all segments of society, including underserved communities; moves goods to markets; enables rapid information-sharing and communication; protects societies from the effects of climate change and public health crises or other emergencies; and supports global connection among nations. 
Initiatives like PGII provide a choice to developing countries to meet infrastructural gaps and can help the Nation to recover from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
 
Source: The Hindu


25 Mar 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS       
Question : How  the role of BIMSTEC is in sync with India's ambition of strengthening ties with its neighbours and create a maritime identity for itself? Discuss.

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
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23 Mar 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS       
Question : To ensure a free, open and thriving Indo-Pacific in backdrop of China’s rising military maneuvering in the region, India’s role as a member of QUAD is big and defining. How it can help deepen the bilateral ties between India and U.S. Comment.

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
International Relations


 
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18 Mar 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS       
Question : Discuss India’s role in United Nation’s Peace-Keeping Operations.

(GS Mains; Paper - 2)
International Relations and Affairs: Important International Institutions

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08 Mar 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS      
Question : How Hydro-Diplomacy between India and Bangladesh is challenging paradigm?
Describe.

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
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02 Mar 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS        
Question : What is the 1936 Montreux Convention and why it is in limelight during Russian-Ukraine conflict?

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
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06 Feb 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS     
Question : Do you think the role of regional groupings has increased in the era of Globalization? Give reasons for your answer. 

(GS Mains; Paper 2 – International Relations)
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31 Jan 2022 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS    
Question : The American power has not declined but other emerging power have risen to reduce the gap. Do you agree with this Statement ? Give reasons.

(GS Mains; Paper 2)
International Relations (IR)
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29 Dec 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS     
Question : How would you describe the bilateral relationship between India and Israel as we celebrate 30 years of diplomatic relations in 2022? Elaborate.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)

 
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20 Dec 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS     
Question : In the light of the third India-central Asia Dialogue, discuss the importance of Central Asia for India. Also, discuss steps taken by India to strengthen its relation with Central-Asian countries.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)
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03 Nov 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS      
Question : Examine the Indo-U.S. relations with special relations to Indo-U.S. Nuclear agreement.

(GS MAINS; PAPER 2)
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20 Oct 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 
Question : With its economic weight, technological strength and normative power, the European Union (EU) promises to enhance India’s quest for a multipolar world, rebalanced Indo-Pacific. Comment.
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25 Sep 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 
Question : Describe how the Quad’s Indo-Pacific infra push plans are Very Different from Beijing’s BRI. Can you envisage that it will be an effective antidote to counter China’s BRI?

(GS Mains Paper 2)

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23 Sep 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 
Question : A kind of ‘jointmanship’ between the Sinic and Islamic civilizations to counter the Western one could lead to “Clash of Civilizations”. How far do you agree with this statement? Elaborate.

(GS Mains Paper 2)
Write or upload your answer - SUBMIT A-CUBE IAS Answer :
Recently our Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) mentioned at an event that it's visible that China is now making friends with Iran, Turkey and other Middle East countries. This joint-manship between Sinic and Islamic civilizations is going to lead to a clash of civilisations with the Western civilisation.
The Clashes of Civilizations is a thesis given by S.P. Huntington in the last decade of the 20th century. This thesis predicts and describes that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world.
Huntington anticipates a coalition or cooperation between Islamic and Sinic cultures to work against a common enemy, the West and further he said that there will be a conflict between Islam and the West leading to a "small, fault line war," and the conflict between America and China has the potential to be an "inter-civilizational war of core states"
If we consider the above predictions, they may seem right to some extent in the present geopolitical situation as there is a rise in the influence of China (Sinic Civilization) in the Islamic World and China is also challenging the hegemony of the west. For example, China announced a new strategic deal with Iran and commitment to share military alliance. Earlier China has already funded the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor project. Similarly, Western countries like USA, France UK and other European countries have started making distance from Islamic countries due to the fear of rise of radicalization in their own country.
But it is also true that there is complex interdependence in today's multipolar world so to think of a clash of civilizations seems distant in the multicultural and multipolar World.
Recently the Minister of External Affairs made it clear that India doesn't believe in the thesis of the clash of civilizations as it is irrational and illogical in the 21st century World. This thesis is based on a narrow understanding of civilizations. At most it could create some ripple in world peace, and international order but civilizational war seems to be outlandish imagination.


19 Sep 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 
Question : What do you mean by “Collective Security”? A “paradigm shift” is being witnessed in terms of our conventional understanding of the concept of “collective security”, at a time when the entire world is fighting a common enemy — Covid-19. Explain the statement.

(GS Mains Paper 2)
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09 Sep 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 
Question : China's New Maritime Rules in the South China Sea will have implications beyond that region including for India. Comment.

(GS MAINS PAPER 2)

 
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23 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 
Question : How do you see the probable formation of a new QUAD around India comprising of Taliban-led Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran and China? What could be the security implications of such a grouping on India?

(GS Mains Paper 2)
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11 Aug 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 
Question :

What is the importance of Maritime Security? Suggest the ways to effectively counter threats to maritime safety and security.

 

(GS MAINS PAPER - 2)

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31 Jul 2021 gs-mains-paper-2 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 
Question :

"India and the U.S. have a lot in common, but it is the differences that need attention." In the context of this statement discuss the India- USA relations. [GS Mains Paper II]

Hint: The Hindu

 

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