Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

Mains Question for UPSC Aspirants

30 Jun 2022 gs-mains-paper-3 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY      
Question : Q. What are VPN and Virtual Server? How are they useful and what are major issues regarding virtual server in the Indian scenario?

Decode the Question:
  • Start with explaining VPN and Virtual Server.
  • Discuss the VPN and Virtual Server.
  • Highlight the issues associated with VPN and Virtual Server in India.
  • Conclude by citing new VPN rules.

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VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a private network that is virtually created when you surf the Web. It is an encrypted connection over the Internet from a device to a network.
The encrypted connection helps ensure that sensitive data is safely transmitted. It prevents unauthorized people from eavesdropping on the traffic and allows the user to conduct work remotely. 
VPN technology is widely used in corporate environments. This private network promotes online safety and enhances your overall privacy on the Web.
A virtual server is a simulated server environment built on an actual physical server. It recreates the functionality of a dedicated physical server. The virtual twin functions like a physical server that runs software and uses resources of the physical server. Multiple virtual servers can run on a single physical server.

Usefulness  of Virtual Server:
  • Reallocating resources: They help in reallocating resources for changing workloads.
  • Efficient use of resources: Converting one physical server into multiple virtual servers allows organisations to use processing power and resources more efficiently by running multiple operating systems and applications on one partitioned server. Running multiple operating systems and applications on a single physical machine reduces cost as it consumes less space and hardware.
  • Cost efficiency: Virtualisation also reduces cost as maintaining a virtual server infrastructure is low compared to physical server infrastructure.
  • High Security: Virtual servers are also said to offer higher security than a physical server infrastructure as the operating system and applications are enclosed in a virtual machine. This helps contain security attacks and malicious behaviour inside the virtual machine.
  • Testing and debugging applications: Virtual servers are also useful in testing and debugging applications in different operating systems and versions without having to manually install and run them in several physical machines. Software developers can create, run, and test new software applications on a virtual server without taking processing power away from other users.
Uses of VPN:
  • Privacy: Without a VPN connection, websites can see your IP address, and use it to accurately identify your identity and location. VPN promotes online safety and enhances your overall privacy on the Web.
  • Safety: A VPN would prevent everyone from the government to cyber criminals to track you easily. Using a VPN can delink your online activity from your IP address. A VPN will also protect your Internet traffic, keeping it encrypted the whole time.
  • Location spoofing: VPNs are used to get around geo-restrictions. 
  • Getting around online censorship: Many countries block access to various websites, which you cannot visit if you’re from those countries. A VPN allows you to bypass such restrictions. Free access to the Web is an important element of the freedom of speech and expression. Journalists and activists often use VPNs to access platforms that would otherwise be inaccessible, and communicate without government restrictions.
Major issues regarding virtual server in Indian scenario:
  • Bypassing cybersecurity walls:  Dark Web and VPNs can bypass cybersecurity walls. 
  • Anonymity : It allows criminals to remain anonymous online. 
  • Fake and wrong Advertising:  VPNs can be easily downloaded and many websites providing such facilities are advertising them.
  • Online Crimes issues: It allows criminals to remain anonymous online. Therefore, Identity theft, internet fraud, cyberbullying, stalking, and other crimes can be easily done by using VPNs.
  • Data Protection and Privacy Issue: For better data management and privacy, VPNs must be regulated.
Recent VPN rules framed by CERT-In mandating Virtual Private Network (VPN) providers to record and keep their customers’ logs for 180 days can be a step in the right direction to regulate and manage virtual servers and VPN .
It also asked these firms to collect and store customer data for up to five years. It further mandated that any cybercrime recorded must be reported to the CERT-In within six hours of the crime. But,  banning technology is not the solution.
VPN suppliers leaving India is not good for its burgeoning IT sector. Taking such radical action that highly impacts the privacy of millions of people in India will most likely be counterproductive and strongly damage the IT sector’s growth in the country.
It estimated that 254.9 million Indians have had their accounts breached since 2004 and raised its concern that collecting excessive amounts of data within Indian jurisdiction without robust protection mechanisms could lead to even more breaches.
References: The Hindu     Indian Express

16 Apr 2022 gs-mains-paper-3 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY      
Question : Recently, there was news about the Bullet Train trials to be conducted at 350 kmph in 2026. Describe the functioning of bullet trains.

(GS Mains; Paper 3)
Science & Technology

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22 Feb 2022 gs-mains-paper-3 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY      
Question : What do you mean by  Synthetic Biology Technologies? What are the potential benefits of this technology for the mankind? Elaborate.

(GS Mains; Paper 3)
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22 Dec 2021 gs-mains-paper-3 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY       
Question : The digital revolution is driven by the relentless engine of semiconductor technology. India already has a well-developed electronics manufacturing ecosystem and a huge, hungry market but the missing piece is semiconductor manufacturing. To fill the gap, GoI’s Rs. 76,000 crore programme aims to transform India into a global hub for electronics manufacturing and build domestic capabilities. At the same time, this scheme has the potential to make India a champion in sunrise areas of growth. How? Elaborate.

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