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It is the process through which fertile and productive land become degraded and unfit for useful activities like agriculture.

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The Ring of Fire, also referred to as the Circum-Pacific Belt/Zone, is a path along the Pacific Ocean characterized by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Its length is approximately 40,000 kilometers.

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Shenzhou-12, meaning ‘Divine Vessel’, will be the third of 11 missions needed to complete China's space station by 2022.

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A government panel studying COVID-19 vaccine side effects have confirmed the first death, due to anaphylaxis, following COVID-19 vaccination.

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The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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Artificial intelligence (AI) is a wide-ranging branch of computer science concerned with building smart machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence.

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Aadhaar is a 12-digit unique identity number that can be obtained voluntarily by residents or passport holders of India, based on their biometric and demographic data.

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The Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLAD) was launched on 23rd December in 1993 to enable Members of Parliament (MPs) to recommend development works in their constituencies with emphasis on the creation of durable community assets ba

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Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.

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The Assam government has proposed the realignment of a broad gauge railway line through the Deepor Beel, an ‘Important Bird Area’ designated under the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands.

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The Lead Bank Scheme, introduced towards the end of 1969, envisages assignment of lead roles to individual banks (both in public sector and private sector) for the districts allotted to them A bank having a relatively large network of branches in the rur

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Banks Board Bureau (BBB) is an autonomous body of the Government of India tasked to Search and Select apposite personages for Board of Public Sector Banks, Mission Indradhanush for PSBs, Composition of Bank Board Bureau, Function of Bank Board Bureau, Iss

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A promissory note, a note payable, is a legal instrument, Types of Promissory Notes, Importance of Promissory Notes, Student Loan Promissory Note, Real Estate Promissory Note, Personal Loan Promissory Notes, Commercial Promissory Note, Investment Promiss

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A participatory note is an instrument issued by a registered foreign institutional investor (FII) to an overseas investor who wishes to invest in Indian stock markets without registering themselves with the market regulator, SEBI, Advantages, disadvantage

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In a bid to ensure that workers had a strong reason to stay back despite COVID-19 challengers, contractors working on National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) projects worked overtime.

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Fort William College was an academy of oriental studies and a centre of learning, founded on 10 July 1800 by Lord Wellesley

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Harsha also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 CE. He was a member of the Vardhana dynasty; and was the son of Prabhakara-vardhana who defeated the Alchon Huna invaders.

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Buddhism is an Indian religion based on a series of original teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha. The term Mahayana is a Sanskrit word which literally means "Great Vehicle" The Hinayana sect, meaning ‘Small Vehicle’ in Sanskrit

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The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was concluded between Mahatma Gandhi and the then viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5th March 1931. The pact was signed before the start of the second round table conference in London. Gandhi-Irwin Pact, also known as the Delhi Pact,

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Call money is minimum short-term finance repayable on demand, with a maturity period of one to fourteen days or overnight to a fortnight.

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India and Nepal initiated their relationship with the 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship and accompanying secret letters that defined security relations between the two countries, and an agreement governing both bilateral trade and trade trans

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The relationship between India and Sri Lanka is very old and built upon a shared legacy of cultural, intellectual, religious and linguistic association.

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The Kisan Credit Card (KCC) scheme was announced in the Budget speech of 1998-99 to fulfil the financial requirements of the farmers at various stages of farming through institutional credit.

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Malware is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, client, or computer network.

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The Mekong, or Mekong River, is a trans-boundary river in East Asia and Southeast Asia.

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The Malabar rebellion of 1921 also known by the names Moplah riots, Mappila riots started as a resistance against the British colonial rule in Malabar region of Kerala The popular uprising was also against the prevailing feudal system controlled by elite

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Munda Rebellion is one of the prominent 19th century tribal rebellions. Birsa Munda led this movement in the region south of Ranchi in 1899-1900.

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Two mass movements were organized in 1919-1922 to oppose the British rule in India— i) the Khilafat ii) Non-Cooperation. Though the issues were separate but they adopted a unified plan of action—that of non-violent, non- cooperation.

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Papikonda National Park is located near Rajamahendravaram in the Papi Hills in East Godavari and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, and covers an area of 1,012.86 km2.

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UPSC, internal security, GS Paper 3, Siachen Glacier, location, eastern Karakoram Range in the Himalayas, the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends, Drainage , Dispute, Environmental Concerns

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The Talanoa Dialogue was launched at COP 23 under the Presidency of the Republic of Fiji.

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The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Preve

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The Under2 Coalition is a coalition of subnational governments that aims to achieve greenhouse gases emissions mitigation.

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The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects.

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It is an act of Parliament to provide for the conduct of election of the Houses of Parliament and to the House or Houses of the Legislature of each State, the qualifications and disqualifications for membership of those Houses, the corrupt practices and o

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Amnesty International is an international non-governmental organization with its headquarters in the United Kingdom focused on human rights

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The International Monetary Fund is an international financial institution, formed in 1944, started in 27 December 1945, at the Bretton Woods Conference.

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The World Justice Project is an international civil society organization with the stated mission of "working to advance the rule of law around the world".

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The Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP) launched in 1978 and implemented during 1980 is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme funded on a 50:50 basis by the centre and the states It is considered one of the best yojanas to do away with poverty related pr

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Minor minerals are those which are prescribed by Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 (section 3(e)) as being categorized as ‘minor minerals’. Any mineral which by the notification of the Central Government may declare to be a minor m

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The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (earlier Department of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, first created in July 2014) was set up in November 2014 to drive the ‘Skill India’ agenda in a ‘Mission Mode’.

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Purchasing power parity is a measurement of prices in different countries that uses the prices of specific goods to compare the absolute purchasing power of the countries’ currencies.

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Statutory liquidity ratio is the minimum percentage of deposits that a commercial bank has to maintain in the form of liquid cash, gold or other approved securities.

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The Pallavas Dynasty emerged as a formidable power in the South India, that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE They were able to sustain their rule for about 500 years. Pallavas gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas

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The edicts of Ashoka are a collection of more than thirty inscriptions on the pillars, as well as boulders, attributed to Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire who reigned from 268 BCE to 232 BCE.

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The Gupta period is referred as the “Golden Age” in ancient India, because of the numerous achievements in the field of arts, literature, science and technology. It also brought about the political unification of the subcontinent.

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Kalidasa was a sanskrit author who is often considered ancient India's greatest playwright and dramatist.

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Amarasimha was a sanskrit grammarian and poet from ancient India.

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The Adriatic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans The countries share boundaries with Adriatic are Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia and Italy.

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The Earth's equator is an imaginary planetary line that is about 40,075 km long in circumference. The equator divides the planet into two equal part, the Northern hemisphere and Southern hemisphere and is located at 0 degrees latitude.

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The Black Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic ocean lying between Europe and Asia; east of the Balkans (Southeast Europe), south of the East European Plain in Eastern Europe, west of the Caucasus, and north of Anatolia in Western Asia.

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The Arctic circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude and the other four are the Antarctic circle and both tropical circles (the Tropic of cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn) and the equator.

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The Red Sea is lying between Africa and Asia. Its connection to the ocean is in the south, through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. Sinai Peninsula lie to its north, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez (leading to the Suez Canal); Suez C

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The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth It is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the sun can be directly overhead. This occurs on the June solstice, when the no

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The Augmented reality is an interactive experience of a real-world environment, where the objects that reside in the real world are enhanced by computer generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, audi

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LISA Pathfinder, formerly Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology-2 (SMART-2), launched on 3 December 2015

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A black hole is a region of space-time where gravity is so strong that no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light can escape from it.

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Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets and interstellar space beyond the Sun's heliosphere

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New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched by NASA as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program

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Wearable technology, also known as "wearables", is a category of electronic devices that can be worn as accessories, embedded in clothing, implanted in the user's body

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THAAD is an acronym for Terminal High Altitude Area Defense, a transportable, ground-based missile defense system.

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Plasma gasification is an emerging technology which can process landfill waste to extract commodity recyclables and convert carbon-based materials into fuels.

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A digital signature is a type of electronic signature for verifying and validating the integrity and authenticity of any digital document, message or software etc.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule composed of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viru

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Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants. Chlorophyll is essential in photosynthesis, allowing plants to absorb energy from light.

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Sarkaria commission In 1983, the Central government appointed a three-member Commission on Centre-state relations under the chairmanship of R.S. Sarkaria, a retired judge of the Supreme Court. The other members of the committee were Shri B. Sivaraman and

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The NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India) was established as the successor to the planning commission.

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In September 1969, the DMK Government of Tamil Nadu appointed a three member committee under the chairmanship of Dr. P.V. Rajamannar to consider the entire question of Centre-state relations. After two year, in 1971, the committee submitted its report.

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Broadly, parliamentary committees are of two kinds–Standing Committees and Ad Hoc Committees.

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Articles 153 to 167 in Part VI of the Constitution deal with the state executive. The state executive consists of the governor, the chief minister, the council of ministers and the advocate general of the state. The governor is neither directly elected

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Official Secrets Act has its roots in the British colonial era. The original version was The Indian Official Secrets Act (Act XIV), 1889. It was enacted with the main objective of muzzling the voice of a large number of newspapers that had come up in seve

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India is planning to establish its own space station by 2023 and the modalities will be worked out after its first manned space mission, Gaganyaan, is complete. It is planning for a separate space station. That space station will be small. It will launch

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The Constitution of India is a very dynamic creation of our lawmakers. The Constitution of India as we all know is a supreme law of the country and every citizen of our country has to abide by the constitution. The constitution is a fundamental law of a c

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Contemporary Notable Scientists from India, Ashoke Sen, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Professor C. S. Unnikrishnan, White Revolution, Green Revolution, Satellite and Communication Revolution, Drugs and vaccines manufacturing, IT Revolution and Railway Compute

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 Bani Thani is an Indian painting in the Kishangarh school of paintings, painted by Nihal chand. It has been labeled as India's "Mona Lisa" The painting’s subject, Bani Thani, was a singer and poet in Kishangarh in the time of king Sawant Singh (1748–17

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 Sir Charles Wood was the President of the Board of Control, played an important role in spreading English learning and female education in India, objectives, recommendations, impact of Wood's Despatch Wood’s suggested that primary schools must adopt ver

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The Indian Forest Act, 1927- was enacted to ‘consolidate the law related to forest, the transit of forest produce, and the duty liable on timber and other forest produce’. The preamble to the Indian Forest Act, 1927 (16 of 1927) states that the Act seeks

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Bara Shigri (literally "Great Glacier") is a glacier located in Lahaul & Spiti, Himachal Pradesh, India.  It lies on the northern slopes of the main Pir Panjal Range of the Inner Himalayas.

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INS Astradharini is an indigenously designed and built torpedo launch and recovery vessel built by Shoft Shipyard for the Indian Navy.  It was commissioned on 06th October 2015 at the Naval Base in Visakhapatnam. INS Astradharini is a replacement of INS

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 The Atal Pension Yojana (APY) was launched on May 2015 to create a universal social security system for all Indians, especially the poor, the under-privileged and the workers in the unorganized sector. 

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National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), an umbrella organisation for operating retail payments and settlement systems in India, is an initiative of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) under the provisions of the Payment

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Government of India launched the Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana (UDAY) in November 2015, to improve the financial health and operational efficiency of India’s debt-ridden power distribution companies (discoms). 

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what is Foreign direct investment and how different it is from Foreign Portfolio Investment, Routes through which India gets FDI, Sectors that come under up to 100% Automatic Route' category, FDI prohibition

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An Appropriation Bill is a money bill that allows the government to withdraw funds from the Consolidated Fund of India to meet its expenses during a financial year.

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Article 110 of the Constitution deals with the definition of money bills, definition, speciality

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currency swap operation, also known as a cross currency swap, the counterparties can hedge their exchange rate and interest rate risk and also reduce the cost of funding

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What are the objectives of the Asian Clearing Union? When was the Asian Clearing Union established? Read to know more. For UPSC 2022

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sustainable cities india program, Cities are economic powerhouses, The main impacts of climate change cities should prepare for, A case study of Cape Town and Chennai

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